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Other barriers


Key Papers

Campbell-Smith, G., R. Sembiring, and M. Linkie. 2012. Evaluating the effectiveness of human-orangutan conflict mitigation strategies in Sumatra. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:367-375.  External resource


Hill, C. M., and G. E. Wallace. 2012. Crop protection and conflict mitigation: reducing the costs of living alongside non-human primates. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:2569-2587.  External resource


Hoare, R. E. 1992. Present and future use of fencing in the management of larger African mammals. Environmental Conservation 19:160-164.  External resource


La Grange, M., C. Matema, B. Nyamukure, and R. Hoare. 2022. The virtual fence dynamic: a breakthrough for low-cost and sustainable mitigation of human-elephant conflict in subsistence agriculture? Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Laguna, E., J. A. Barasona, A. J. Carpio, J. Vicente, and P. Acevedo. 2022. Permeability of artificial barriers (fences) for wild boar Sus scrofa in Mediterranean mixed landscapes. Pest Management Science.  Download

Lance, N. J., S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik. 2010. Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus). Wildlife Research 37:708-714.  External resource

Lichtenfeld, L. L., C. Trout, and E. L. Kisimir. 2015. Evidence-based conservation: predator-proof bomas protect livestock and lions. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:483-491.  Download


Manoa, D. O., S. Melubo, S. Kasaine, P. Banham, J. Willie, T. Oloo, E. Greengrass, and N. Tagg. 2022. Drivers of predator-proof boma disrepair in the Amboseli Ecosystem, Kenya. Oryx:1-9.   Download

Musiani, M., C. Mamo, L. Boitani, C. Callaghan, C. C. Gates, L. Mattei, E. VisalberghiI, S. Breck, and G. VolpiI. 2003. Wolf depredation trends and the use of barriers to protect livestock in western North America. Conservation Biology 17:1-10.  External resource


Natarajan, L., A. Kumar, Q. Qureshi, A. A. Desai, and B. Pandav. 2021. Evaluation of wall-barriers to manage human conflict with Asian elephants in India. Wildlife Society Bulletin.  External resource

Nelson, A., P. Bidwell, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2003. A review of human-elephant conflict management strategies. People & Wildlife, A Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Born Free Foundation Partnership.  Download


Shivik, J. A., A. Treves, and P. Callahan. 2003. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17:1531-1537.  External resource


Sitati, N. W., and M. J. Walpole. 2006. Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human-elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx 40:279-286.  External resource

Stone, S. A., S. W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P. M. Haswell, F. Najera, B. S. Bean, and D. J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98:33-44.  Download

Weise, F. J., M. W. Hayward, R. Casillas Aguirre, M. Tomeletso, P. Gadimang, M. J. Somers, and A. B. Stein. 2018. Size, shape and maintenance matter: a critical appraisal of a global carnivore conflict mitigation strategy – livestock protection kraals in northern Botswana. Biological Conservation 225:88-97.  External resource

Westbrook, C. J., and K. England. 2022. Relative effectiveness of four different guards in preventing beaver cutting of urban trees. Environmental Management.   External resource

Wilkinson, C. E., A. McInturff, M. Kelly, and J. S. Brashares. 2021. Quantifying wildlife responses to conservation fencing in East Africa. Biological Conservation 256:109071. External resource

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