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Guidance Documents

Human-lion conflict toolkit. (Niassa Carnivore Project & partners)   

English  Download         French  Download         Portuguese  Download


Human-wildlife conflict in Africa: causes, consequences and management strategies. (FAO Forestry Paper)  Download

Key Papers

Banasiak, N. M., M. W. Hayward, and G. I. H. Kerley. 2021. Emerging human–carnivore conflict following large carnivore reintroductions highlights the need to lift baselines. African Journal of Wildlife Research 51.  External resource

Bauer, H., H. de Iongh, and E. Sogbohossou. 2010. Assessment and mitigation of human-lion conflict in West and Central Africa. Mammalia 74:363-367.  External resource

Bauer, H., A. Dickman, G. Chapron, A. Oriol-Cotterill, S. K. Nicholson, C. Sillero-Zubiri, L. Hunter, P. Lindsey, and D. W. Macdonald. 2020. Threat analysis for more effective lion conservation. Oryx:1-8.  Download

Bauer, H., L. Muller, D. Van Der Goes, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2017. Financial compensation for damage to livestock by lions Panthera leo on community rangelands in Kenya. Oryx 51:106-114.  External resource


Blackburn, S., J. G. C. Hopcraft, J. O. Ogutu, J. Matthiopoulos, and L. Frank. 2016. Human-wildlife conflict, benefit sharing and the survival of lions in pastoralist community-based conservancies. Journal of Applied Ecology 53:1195-1205.  Download

Bombieri, G., V. Penteriani, K. Almasieh, H. Ambarlı, M. R. Ashrafzadeh, C. S. Das, N. Dharaiya, R. Hoogesteijn, A. Hoogesteijn, D. Ikanda, W. Jędrzejewski, M. Kaboli, A. Kirilyuk, A. K. Jangid, R. K. Sharma, H. Kushnir, B. R. Lamichhane, A. Mohammadi, O. Monroy-Vilchis, J. M. Mukeka, I. Nikolaev, O. Ohrens, C. Packer, P. Pedrini, S. Ratnayeke, I. Seryodkin, T. Sharp, H. S. Palei, T. Smith, A. Subedi, F. Tortato, K. Yamazaki, and M. d. M. Delgado. 2023. A worldwide perspective on large carnivore attacks on humans. PLOS Biology 21:e3001946.   Download

Chausson, A., H. Gurd, J. Foley, S. Bhalla, J. Lekilelei, T. Otieno, B. Lejale, P. Lenasalia, and E. J. Milner-Gulland. 2022. Evaluating the impact of Warrior Watch: behaviour change to promote human-lion coexistence. Biological Conservation 271:109571.   Download

Corcoran, W., and B. Fisher. 2021. Life with big cats: local perceptions of big cat species. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Dheer, A., E. Davidian, M. H. Jacobs, J. Ndorosa, T. M. Straka, and O. P. Höner. 2021. Emotions and cultural importance predict the acceptance of large carnivore management strategies by Maasai pastoralists. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Dickman, A. J., L. Hazzah, C. Carbone, and S. M. Durant. 2014. Carnivores, culture and 'contagious conflict': multiple factors influence perceived problems with carnivores in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape. Biological Conservation 178:19-27.  External resource


Di Minin, E., R. Slotow, C. Fink, H. Bauer, and C. Packer. 2021. A pan-African spatial assessment of human conflicts with lions and elephants. Nature Communications 12:2978.  Download

Durant, S. M., A. Marino, J. D. C. Linnell, A. Oriol-Cotterill, S. Dloniak, S. Dolrenry, P. Funston, R. J. Groom, L. Hanssen, J. Horgan, D. Ikanda, A. Ipavec, B. Kissui, L. Lichtenfeld, J. W. McNutt, N. Mitchell, E. Naro, A. Samna, and G. Yirga. 2022. Fostering coexistence between people and large carnivores in Africa: using a theory of change to identify pathways to impact and their underlying assumptions. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Fonturbel, F. E., and J. A. Simonetti. 2011. Translocations and human-carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17:217-224.  Download


Gebresenbet, F., H. Bauer, J. M. Vadjunec, and M. Papeş. 2018. Beyond the numbers: human attitudes and conflict with lions (Panthera leo) in and around Gambella National Park, Ethiopia. Plos One 13:e0204320.  Download


Hazzah, L., A. Bath, S. Dolrenry, A. Dickman, and L. Frank. 2017. From attitudes to actions: predictors of lion killing by Maasai warriors. Plos One 12:e0170796.  Download


Hazzah, L., S. Dolrenry, L. Naughton, C. T. T. Edwards, O. Mwebi, F. Kearney, and L. Frank. 2014. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya. Conservation Biology 28:851-860.  External resource


Hazzah, L., M. B. Mulder, and L. Frank. 2009. Lions and warriors: social factors underlying declining African lion populations and the effect of incentive-based management in Kenya. Biological Conservation 142:2428-2437.  External resource


Hemson, G., S. Maclennan, G. Mills, P. Johnson, and D. Macdonald. 2009. Community, lions, livestock and money: a spatial and social analysis of attitudes to wildlife and the conservation value of tourism in a human-carnivore conflict in Botswana. Biological Conservation 142:2718-2725.  External resource

Hoffmann, C. F., and R. A. Montgomery. 2022. Implications of taxonomic bias for human–carnivore conflict mitigation. Oryx:1-10.  Download

Hoffmann, C. F., N. W. Pilfold, K. A. Ruppert, A. Letoluai, L. Lenguya, I. Limo, and R. A. Montgomery. 2022. The integral nature of encounter rate in predicting livestock depredation risk. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Holland, K. K., L. R. Larson, and R. B. Powell. 2018. Characterizing conflict between humans and big cats Panthera spp: a systematic review of research trends and management opportunities. Plos One 13:e0203877.  Download


Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34.  External resource

Jacobsen, K. S., E. D. Sandorf, A. J. Loveridge, A. J. Dickman, P. J. Johnson, S. Mourato, D. Contu, and D. W. Macdonald. 2022. What is a lion worth to local people – quantifying of the costs of living alongside a top predator. Ecological Economics 198:107431.   External resource

Kalyahe, M. M., H. Hofer, and M. L. East. 2022. Do anthropogenic sources of food increase livestock predation in the area surrounding Ruaha National Park? Environmental Conservation:1-9.  External resource

Kuiper, T., A. J. Loveridge, and D. W. Macdonald. 2021. Robust mapping of human–wildlife conflict: controlling for livestock distribution in carnivore depredation models. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Kuiper, T. R., A. J. Loveridge, D. M. Parker, P. J. Johnson, J. E. Hunt, B. Stapelkamp, L. Sibanda, and D. W. Macdonald. 2015. Seasonal herding practices influence predation on domestic stock by African lions along a protected area boundary. Biological Conservation 191:546-554.  External resource


Kushnir, H., H. Leitner, D. Ikanda, and C. Packer. 2010. Human and ecological risk factors for unprovoked lion attacks on humans in southeastern Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 15:315-331.  External resource

Kushnir, H., and C. Packer. 2019. Perceptions of risk from man-eating lions in Southeastern Tanzania. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7.  External resource

Lichtenfeld, L. L., C. Trout, and E. L. Kisimir. 2015. Evidence-based conservation: predator-proof bomas protect livestock and lions. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:483-491.  Download


Lindsey, P. A., Havemann, C. P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A. E., Retief, T. A., Rhebergen, T. and Van der Waal, C. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands. Plos One 8:14.  Download


Maclennan, S. D., R. J. Groom, D. W. Macdonald, and L. G. Frank. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation 142:2419-2427.  External resource


Manoa, D. O., S. Melubo, S. Kasaine, P. Banham, J. Willie, T. Oloo, E. Greengrass, and N. Tagg. 2022. Drivers of predator-proof boma disrepair in the Amboseli Ecosystem, Kenya. Oryx:1-9.   Download

Meena, V., P. J. Johnson, A. Zimmermann, R. A. Montgomery, and D. W. Macdonald. 2020. Evaluation of human attitudes and factors conducive to promoting human–lion coexistence in the Greater Gir landscape, India. Oryx:1-10.  External resource


Meena, V., Macdonald, D. W. and Montgomery, R. A. 2014. Managing success: Asiatic lion conservation, interface problems and peoples' perceptions in the Gir Protected Area. Biological Conservation 174:120-126.  External resource


Montgomery, R. A., C. F. Hoffmann, E. D. Tans, and B. Kissui. 2018. Discordant scales and the potential pitfalls for human-carnivore conflict mitigation. Biological Conservation 224:170-177.  External resource


Morapedi, M., M. Reuben, P. Gadimang, J. Bradley, W. Given, R. P. Reading, K. Ngaka, M. Selebatso, and G. Maude. 2021. Outcomes of lion, Panthera leo, translocations to reduce conflict with farmers in Botswana. African Journal of Wildlife Research 51.  External resource

Ontiri, E. M., M. Odino, A. Kasanga, P. Kahumbu, L. W. Robinson, T. Currie, and D. J. Hodgson. 2019. Maasai pastoralists kill lions in retaliation for depredation of livestock by lions. People and Nature  Download


Parker, B. G., K. S. Jacobsen, J. A. Vucetich, A. J. Dickman, A. J. Loveridge, and D. W. Macdonald. 2022. Towards equitable conservation: social capital, fear and livestock loss shape perceived benefit from a protected area. Journal of Environmental Management 319:115676.  Download

Patterson, B. D., E. J. Neiburger, and S. M. Kasiki. 2003. Tooth breakage and dental disease as causes of carnivore-human conflicts. Journal of Mammalogy 84:190-196.  Download


Petracca, L. S., J. L. Frair, G. Bastille-Rousseau, D. W. Macdonald, and A. J. Loveridge. 2021. Harassment-induced changes in lion space use as a conflict mitigation tool. Conservation Science and Practice 3:e373.  Download

Pooley, S., M. Barua, W. Beinart, A. Dickman, G. Holmes, J. Lorimer, A. J. Loveridge, D. W. Macdonald, G. Marvin, S. Redpath, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A. Zimmermann, and E. J. Milner-Gulland. 2017. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human–predator relations. Conservation Biology 31:513-523.  Download


Saberwal, V. K., J. P. Gibbs, R. Chellam, and A. J. T. Johnsingh. 1994. Lion human conflict in the Gir Forest, India. Conservation Biology 8:501-507.  External resource


Sargent, R., O. S. Rakotonarivo, S. P. Rushton, B. Cascio, A. Grau, A. R. Bell, N. Bunnefeld, A. Dickman, and M. Pfeifer. 2022. An experimental game to examine pastoralists' preferences for human–lion coexistence strategies. People and Nature.  Download

Schuette, P., S. Creel, and D. Christianson. 2013. Coexistence of African lions, livestock, and people in a landscape with variable human land use and seasonal movements. Biological Conservation 157:148-154.  External resource


Sibanda, L., P. J. Johnson, E. van der Meer, C. Hughes, B. Dlodlo, L. J. Mathe, J. E. Hunt, R. H. Parry, D. W. Macdonald, and A. J. Loveridge. 2021. Effectiveness of community-based livestock protection strategies: a case study of human–lion conflict mitigation. Oryx:1-9.  Download

Sibanda, L., E. van der Meer, P. J. Johnson, C. Hughes, B. Dlodlo, R. H. Parry, L. J. Mathe, J. E. Hunt, D. W. Macdonald, and A. J. Loveridge. 2020. Evaluating the effects of a conservation intervention on rural farmers’ attitudes toward lions. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-16.  External resource

Venumière-Lefebvre, C. C., S. W. Breck, and K. R. Crooks. 2022. A systematic map of human-carnivore coexistence. Biological Conservation 268:109515.  External resource

Vucetich, J. A., J. T. Bruskotter, and D. W. Macdonald. 2021. Can deliberative democracy favor a flourishing relationship between humans and carnivores? Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Weise, F. J., H. Hauptmeier, K. J. Stratford, M. W. Hayward, K. Aal, M. Heuer, M. Tomeletso, V. Wulf, M. J. Somers, and A. B. Stein. 2019. Lions at the gates: trans-disciplinary design of an early warning system to improve human-lion coexistence. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6.  External resource

White, P. A., and B. Van Valkenburgh. 2022. Low-cost forensics reveal high rates of non-lethal snaring and shotgun injuries in Zambia's large carnivores. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Wilkinson, C. E., J. S. Brashares, A. C. Bett, and M. Kelly. 2021. Examining drivers of divergence in recorded and perceived human-carnivore conflict hotspots by integrating participatory and ecological data. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Winterbach, H. E. K., C. W. Winterbach, M. J. Somers, and M. W. Hayward. 2013. Key factors and related principles in the conservation of large African carnivores. Mammal Review 43:89-110.  External resource

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