Bears

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Guidance Documents

How to avoid conflict with sloth bears - poster (2018). (The Corbett Foundation)

Hindi  Download     English  Download

 

How to avoid conflict with sloth bears - a pictorial handbook (2018). (The Corbett Foundation)

Hindi  Download     English  Download

 

A guidebook to human-carnivore conflict: strategies and tips for effective communication and collaboration with communities (2016). (Wilson, S.M.)  External resource

 

Livestock guarding dogs - cultural heritage icons with a new relevance for mitigating conservation conflicts (2015). (Linnell, J.D.C. and Lescureux, N.)  External resource

 

Responding to human-black bear conflicts: a guide to non-lethal bear management techniques (2015). (Get Bear Smart Society)  External resource

 

Defining, preventing, and reacting to problem bear behaviour in Europe (2015). (Skrbinšek, A. M., and M. Krofel)  Download

 

Supra-regional Action plan for the conservation of the brown bear in the Central-Eastern Alps – PACOBACE (2011). (AA.VV.)   Download

 

Bears and electric fencing: a starter's guide for using electric fencing to deter bears (2010). (Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks)  External resource

Key Papers

Acharya, K. P., P. K. Paudel, P. R. Neupane, and M. Kohl. 2016. Human-wildlife conflicts in Nepal: patterns of human fatalities and injuries caused by large mammals. Plos One 11:18.  Download

 

Ahmad, S., S. Hameed, H. Ali, T. U. Khan, T. Mehmood, and M. A. Nawaz. 2016. Carnivores' diversity and conflicts with humans in Musk Deer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62:565-576.  External resource

 

Alexander, J., P. J. Chen, P. Damerell, W. Youkui, J. Hughes, K. Shi, and P. Riordan. 2015. Human wildlife conflict involving large carnivores in Qilianshan, China and the minimal paw-print of snow leopards. Biological Conservation 187:1-9.  External resource

 

Alldredge, M. W., D. P. Walsh, L. L. Sweanor, R. B. Davies, and A. Trujillo. 2015. Evaluation of translocation of black bears involved in human-bear conflicts in South-Central Colorado. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39:334-340.  External resource

 

Ambarli, H., and C. C. Bilgin. 2008. Human-brown bear conflicts in Artvin, northeastern Turkey: encounters, damage, and attitudes. Ursus 19:146-153.  External resource

 

Artelle, K. A., S. C. Anderson, J. D. Reynolds, A. B. Cooper, P. C. Paquet, and C. T. Darimont. 2016. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land. Scientific Reports 6:9.  Download

 

Aryal, A., D. Brunton, W. H. Ji, R. K. Barraclough, and D. Raubenheimer. 2014. Human-carnivore conflict: ecological and economical sustainability of predation on livestock by snow leopard and other carnivores in the Himalaya. Sustainability Science 9:321-329.  External resource

 

Bargali, H. S., N. Akhtar, and N. P. S. Chauhan. 2005. Characteristics of sloth bear attacks and human casualties in North Bilaspur forest division, Chhattisgarh, India. Ursus 16:263-267.  External resource

 

Baruch-Mordo, S., S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and J. Broderick. 2011. The carrot or the stick? Evaluation of education and enforcement as management tools for human-wildlife conflicts. Plos One 6:8.  Download

 

Baruch-Mordo, S., S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and D. M. Theobald. 2008. Spatiotemporal distribution of black bear-human conflicts in Colorado, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1853-1862.  External resource

 

Baruch-Mordo, S., K. R. Wilson, D. L. Lewis, J. Broderick, J. S. Mao, and S. W. Breck. 2014. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts. Plos One 9:10.  Download

 

Beecham, J. J., M. D. Hernando, A. A. Karamanlidis, R. A. Beausoleil, K. Burguess, D. H. Jeong, M. Binks, L. Bereczky, N. V. K. Ashraf, K. Skripova, L. Rhodin, J. Auger, and B. K. Lee. 2015. Management implications for releasing orphaned, captive-reared bears back to the wild. Journal of Wildlife Management 79:1327-1336.  External resource

 

Blackwell, B. F., T. L. DeVault, E. Fernandez-Juricic, E. M. Gese, L. Gilbert-Norton, and S. W. Breck. 2016. No single solution: application of behavioural principles in mitigating human-wildlife conflict. Animal Behaviour 120:245-254.  External resource

 

Bauder, J. M., D. Ruid, N. M. Roberts, B. Kohn, and M. L. Allen. 2021. Effects of translocation on survival of nuisance bears. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Bombieri, G., V. Penteriani, M. d. M. Delgado, C. Groff, L. Pedrotti, and K. Jerina. 2021. Towards understanding bold behaviour of large carnivores: the case of brown bears in human-modified landscapes. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Boonman-Berson, S., E. Turnhout, and M. Carolan. 2016. Common sensing: human-black bear cohabitation practices in Colorado. Geoforum 74:192-201.  External resource

 

Breck, S. W., N. Lance, and P. Callahan. 2006. A shocking device for protection of concentrated food sources from black bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:23-26.  External resource

 

Can, Ö., and İ. Togan. 2004. Status and management of brown bears in Turkey. Ursus 15:48-53.  External resource

 

Can, O. E., N. D'Cruze, D. L. Garshelis, J. Beecham, and D. W. Macdonald. 2014. Resolving human-bear conflict: a global survey of countries, experts, and key factors. Conservation Letters 7:501-513.  Download

 

Chamberlain, E. C., M. B. Rutherford, and M. L. Gibeau. 2012. Human perspectives and conservation of grizzly bears in Banff National Park, Canada. Conservation Biology 26:420-431.  External resource

 

Chapron, G., P. Kaczensky, J. D. C. Linnell, M. von Arx, D. Huber, H. Andren, J. V. Lopez-Bao, M. Adamec, F. Alvares, O. Anders, L. Balciauskas, V. Balys, P. Bedo, F. Bego, J. C. Blanco, U. Breitenmoser, H. Broseth, L. Bufka, R. Bunikyte, P. Ciucci, A. Dutsov, T. Engleder, C. Fuxjager, C. Groff, K. Holmala, B. Hoxha, Y. Iliopoulos, O. Ionescu, J. Jeremic, K. Jerina, G. Kluth, F. Knauer, I. Kojola, I. Kos, M. Krofel, J. Kubala, S. Kunovac, J. Kusak, M. Kutal, O. Liberg, A. Majic, P. Mannil, R. Manz, E. Marboutin, F. Marucco, D. Melovski, K. Mersini, Y. Mertzanis, R. W. Myslajek, S. Nowak, J. Odden, J. Ozolins, G. Palomero, M. Paunovic, J. Persson, H. Potocnik, P. Y. Quenette, G. Rauer, I. Reinhardt, R. Rigg, A. Ryser, V. Salvatori, T. Skrbinsek, A. Stojanov, J. E. Swenson, L. Szemethy, A. Trajce, E. Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, M. Vana, R. Veeroja, P. Wabakken, M. Wofl, S. Wolfl, F. Zimmermann, D. Zlatanova, and L. Boitani. 2014. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346:1517-1519.  External resource

 

Charoo, S. A., L. K. Sharma, and S. Sathyakumar. 2011. Asiatic black bear-human interactions around Dachigam National Park, Kashmir, India. Ursus 22:106-113.  External resource

 

Chauhan, N. 2003. Human casualties and livestock depredation by black and brown bears in the Indian Himalaya, 1989-98. Ursus:84-87.  External resource

 

Clark, D., F. van Beest, and R. Brook. 2012. Polar bear-human conflicts: state of knowledge and research needs. Canadian Wildlife Biology and Management.  External resource

 

Clark, D. A., and S. Slocombe. 2011. Adaptive co-management and grizzly bear-human conflicts in two Northern Canadian aboriginal communities. Human Ecology 39:627-640.  External resource

 

Cleary, M., O. Joshi, and W. S. Fairbanks. 2021. Factors that determine human acceptance of black bears. The Journal of Wildlife Management.  External resource

Cleary, M., O. Joshi, and W. S. Fairbanks. 2021. Mapping and modeling the components of human tolerance for black bears in eastern Oklahoma. Journal of Environmental Management 288:112378.  External resource

Coleman, T. H., C. C. Schwartz, K. A. Gunther, and S. Creel. 2013. Influence of overnight recreation on grizzly bear movement and behavior in Yellowstone National Park. Ursus 24:101-110.  External resource

 

Coogan, S. C. P., and D. Raubenheimer. 2016. Might macronutrient requirements influence grizzly bear-human conflict? Insights from nutritional geometry. Ecosphere 7:15.  Download

 

Creachbaum, M. S., C. Johnson, and R. H. Schmidt. 1998. Living on the edge: a process for redesigning campgrounds in grizzly bear habitat. Landscape and Urban Planning 42:269-286.  External resource

 

Dhamorikar, A. H., P. Mehta, H. Bargali, and K. Gore. 2017. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India. Plos One 12:e0176612.  Download

 

Ditmer, M. A., T. E. Burk, and D. L. Garshelis. 2015. Do innate food preferences and learning affect crop raiding by American black bears? Ursus 26:40-52.  External resource

 

Dorresteijn, I., A. I. Milcu, J. Leventon, J. Hanspach, and J. Fischer. 2016. Social factors mediating human-carnivore coexistence: understanding thematic strands influencing coexistence in Central Romania. Ambio 45:490-500.  External resource

 

Elfstrom, M., M. L. Davey, A. Zedrosser, M. Muller, M. De Barba, O. G. Stoen, C. Miquel, P. Taberlet, K. Hacklander, and J. E. Swenson. 2014. Do Scandinavian brown bears approach settlements to obtain high-quality food? Biological Conservation 178:128-135.  Download

 

Elfström, M., A. Zedrosser, O.-G. Støen, and J. E. Swenson. 2014. Ultimate and proximate mechanisms underlying the occurrence of bears close to human settlements: review and management implications. Mammal Review 44:5-18.  Download

 

Espinosa, S., and S. K. Jacobson. 2012. Human-wildlife conflict and environmental education: evaluating a community program to protect the Andean bear in Ecuador. Journal of Environmental Education 43:55-65.  External resource

 

Evans, M. J., J. E. Hawley, P. W. Rego, and T. A. G. Rittenhouse. 2014. Exurban land use facilitates human-black bear conflicts. Journal of Wildlife Management 78:1477-1485.  External resource

 

Fernandez-Gil, A., J. Naves, A. Ordiz, M. Quevedo, E. Revilla, and M. Delibes. 2016. Conflict misleads large carnivore management and conservation: brown bears and wolves in Spain. Plos One 11:13.  Download

 

Fonturbel, F. E., and J. A. Simonetti. 2011. Translocations and human-carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17:217-224.  Download

 

Frank, J., Johansson, M. and Flykt, A. 2015. Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves. Wildlife Biology 21:122-130.  Download

 

Fredrikkson, G. 2005. Human-sun bear conflicts in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Ursus 16:130-137.  External resource

 

Garcia, K. C., H. M. Joshi, and N. Dharaiya. 2016. Assessment of human-sloth bear conflicts in North Gujarat, India. Ursus 27:5-10.  External resource

 

Glikman, J. A., J. J. Vaske, A. J. Bath, P. Ciucci, and L. Boitani. 2012. Residents' support for wolf and bear conservation: the moderating influence of knowledge. European Journal of Wildlife Research 58:295-302.  External resource

 

Goldstein, I., S. Paisley, R. Wallace, J. P. Jorgenson, F. Cuesta, and A. Castellanos. 2006. Andean bear–livestock conflicts: a review. Ursus 17:8-15.  External resource

 

Gore, M. L., B. A. Knuth, P. D. Curtis, and J. E. Shanahan. 2006. Education programs for reducing American black bear-human conflict: indicators of success? Ursus 17:75-80.  External resource

 

Gore, M. L., B. A. Knuth, P. D. Curtis, and J. E. Shanahan. 2006. Stakeholder perceptions of risk associated with human-black bear conflicts in New York's Adirondack Park campgrounds: implications for theory and practice. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:36-43.  External resource

 

Gore, M. L., B. A. Knuth, C. W. Scherer, and P. D. Curtis. 2008. Evaluating a conservation investment designed to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Conservation Letters 1:136-145.  Download

 

Greenleaf, S. S., S. M. Matthews, R. G. Wright, J. J. Beecham, and H. M. Leithead. 2009. Food habits of American black bears as a metric for direct management of human-bear conflict in Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California. Ursus 20:94-101.  External resource

 

Gunther, K. A., M. A. Haroldson, K. Frey, S. L. Cain, J. Copeland, and C. C. Schwartz. 2004. Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, 1992-2000. Ursus 15:10-22.  External resource

 

Heneghan, M. D., and W. C. Morse. 2019. Acceptability of management actions and the potential for conflict following human-black bear encounters. Society & Natural Resources:1-18.  External resource

 

Herrero, S., A. Higgins, J. E. Cardoza, L. I. Hajduk, and T. S. Smith. 2011. Fatal attacks by American black bear on people: 1900-2009. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:596-603.  External resource

 

Hobbs, N. T., H. Andren, J. Persson, M. Aronsson, and G. Chapron. 2012. Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sami pastoralists. Ecological Applications 22:1640-1654.  External resource

 

Hopkins, J. B., and S. T. Kalinowski. 2013. The fate of transported American black bears in Yosemite National Park. Ursus 24:120-126.  External resource

 

Howe, E. J., M. E. Obbard, R. Black, and L. L. Wall. 2010. Do public complaints reflect trends in human-bear conflict? Ursus 21:131-142.  External resource

 

Huber, D., J. Kusak, A. Majic-Skrbinsek, D. Majnaric, and M. Sindicic. 2008. A multidimensional approach to managing the European brown bear in Croatia. Ursus 19:22-32.  External resource

 

Hughes, C., B. Frank, N. A. Melnycky, N. T. Yarmey, and J. A. Glikman. 2020. From worship to subjugation: understanding stories about bears to inform conservation efforts. Ursus 2020:1-12, 12.  External resource

Hughes, C., and S. E. Nielsen. 2018. ‘Bear are only the Lightning Rod’: ongoing acrimony in Alberta’s Grizzly Bear Recovery. Society & Natural Resources:1-19.  External resource


Hughes, C., N. Yarmey, A. Morehouse, and S. Nielsen. 2020. Problem perspectives and grizzly bears: a case study of Alberta’s grizzly bear recovery policy. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8.  Download
 

Jampel, C. 2016. Cattle-based livelihoods, changes in the taskscape, and human-bear conflict in the Ecuadorian Andes. Geoforum 69:84-93.  External resource

 

Johansson, M., I. A. Ferreira, O. G. Stoen, J. Frank, and A. Flykt. 2016. Targeting human fear of large carnivores - many ideas but few known effects. Biological Conservation 201:261-269.  External resource

 

Karamanlidis, A. A., A. Sanopoulos, L. Georgiadis, and A. Zedrosser. 2011. Structural and economic aspects of human-bear conflicts in Greece. Ursus 22:141-151.  External resource

 

Karlsson, J., and M. Sjostrom. 2008. Direct use values and passive use values: implications for conservation of large carnivores. Biodiversity and Conservation 17:883-891.  External resource

 

Kavcic, I., M. Adamic, P. Kaczensky, M. Krofel, and K. Jerina. 2013. Supplemental feeding with carrion is not reducing brown bear depredations on sheep in Slovenia. Ursus 24:111-119.  External resource

 

Kavcic, I., M. Adamic, P. Kaczensky, M. Krofel, M. Kobal, and K. Jerina. 2015. Fast food bears: brown bear diet in a human-dominated landscape with intensive supplemental feeding. Wildlife Biology 21:1-8.  Download

 

Kirby, R., Alldredge, M. W. and Pauli, J. N. 2016. The diet of black bears tracks the human footprint across a rapidly developing landscape. Biological Conservation 200:51-59.  External resource

 

Knarrum, V., O. J. Sorensen, T. Eggen, T. Kvam, O. Opseth, K. Overskaug, and A. Eidsmo. 2006. Brown bear predation on domestic sheep in central Norway. Ursus 17:67-74.  External resource

 

Kubo, T., and Y. Shoji. 2014. Spatial tradeoffs between residents' preferences for brown bear conservation and the mitigation of human-bear conflicts. Biological Conservation 176:126-132.  External resource

 

Kubo, T., and Y. Shoji. 2014. Trade-off between human-wildlife conflict risk and recreation conditions. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60:501-510.  External resource

 

Kubo, T., and Y. Shoji. 2016. Public segmentation based on the risk perception of brown bear attacks and management preferences. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62:203-210.  External resource

 

Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2010. Knowledge and perceptions of Macedonian hunters and herders: the influence of species specific ecology of bears, wolves, and lynx. Human Ecology 38:389-399.  External resource

 

Lewis, D. L., S. Baruch-Mordo, K. R. Wilson, S. W. Breck, J. S. Mao, and J. Broderick. 2015. Foraging ecology of black bears in urban environments: guidance for human-bear conflict mitigation. Ecosphere 6:18.  Download

 

Lewis, D. L., S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and C. T. Webb. 2014. Modeling black bear population dynamics in a human-dominated stochastic environment. Ecological Modelling 294:51-58.  External resource

 

Li, C. L., Z. G. Jiang, C. W. Li, S. H. Tang, F. Li, Z. H. Luo, X. G. Ping, Z. Liu, J. Chen, and H. X. Fang. 2015. Livestock depredations and attitudes of local pastoralists toward carnivores in the Qinghai Lake Region, China. Wildlife Biology 21:204-212.  Download

 

Linnell, J. D. C., R. Aanes, J. E. Swenson, J. Odden, and M. E. Smith. 1997. Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation 6:1245-1257.  External resource

 

Liu, F., McShea, W. J., Garshelis, D. L., Zhu, X. J., Wang, D. J. and Shao, L. K. 2011. Human-wildlife conflicts influence attitudes but not necessarily behaviors: factors driving the poaching of bears in China. Biological Conservation 144:538-547.  External resource

 

Mabille, G., A. Stien, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Broseth, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2015. Sheep farming and large carnivores: what are the factors influencing claimed losses? Ecosphere 6:17.  Download

 

Mace, R. D., and J. S. Waller. 1996. Grizzly bear distribution and human conflicts in Jewel Basin hiking area, Swan Mountains, Montana. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:461-467.  External resource

 

MacHutchon, A. G., and D. W. Wellwood. 2002. Assessing the risk of bear-human interaction at river campsites. Ursus 13:293-297.  External resource

 

Maguire, L. A., and C. Servheen. 1992. Integrating biological and socialogical concerns in endangered species management - augmentation of grizzly bear populations. Conservation Biology 6:426-434.  External resource

 

Marley, J., A. Hyde, J. H. Salkeld, M. C. Prima, L. Parrott, S. E. Senger, and R. C. Tyson. 2017. Does human education reduce conflicts between humans and bears? An agent-based modelling approach. Ecological Modelling 343:15-24.  External resource

 

Mazur, R. L. 2010. Does aversive conditioning reduce human-black bear conflict? Journal of Wildlife Management 74:48-54.  External resource

 

McFadden-Hiller, J. E., D. E. Beyer, and J. L. Belant. 2016. Spatial distribution of black bear incident reports in Michigan. Plos One 11:17.  Download

 

Merkle, J. A., P. R. Krausman, and M. M. Booth. 2011. Behavioral and attitudinal change of residents exposed to human-bear interactions. Ursus 22:74-83.  External resource

 

Merkle, J. A., P. R. Krausman, N. J. Decesare, and J. J. Jonkel. 2011. Predicting spatial distribution of human-black bear interactions in urban areas. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:1121-1127.  External resource

 

Merkle, J. A., H. S. Robinson, P. R. Krausman, and P. Alaback. 2013. Food availability and foraging near human developments by black bears. Journal of Mammalogy 94:378-385.  Download

 

Morehouse, A. T., T. A. Graves, N. Mikle, and M. S. Boyce. 2016. Nature vs. nurture: evidence for social learning of conflict behaviour in grizzly bears. Plos One 11:15.  Download

 

Morzillo, A. T., A. G. Mertig, J. W. Hollister, N. Garner, and J. G. Liu. 2010. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies. Environmental Management 45:1299-1311.  External resource

 

Mukesh, L. K. Sharma, S. A. Charoo, and S. Sathyakumar. 2015. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Plos One 10:17.  Download

 

Northrup, J. M., G. B. Stenhouse, and M. S. Boyce. 2012. Agricultural lands as ecological traps for grizzly bears. Animal Conservation 15:369-377.  External resource

 

Nesbitt, H. K., A. L. Metcalf, A. A. Lubeck, E. C. Metcalf, C. Beckman, A. P. Smith, and T. M. Cummins. 2021. Collective factors reinforce individual contributions to human-wildlife coexistence. The Journal of Wildlife Management.  External resource

Oka, T., S. Miura, T. Masaki, W. Suzuki, K. Osumi, and S. Saitoh. 2004. Relationship between changes in beechnut production and Asiatic black bears in northern Japan. Journal of Wildlife Management 68:979-986.  External resource

 

Ordiz, A., G. K. Moen, S. Sæbø, N. Stenset, J. E. Swenson, and O.-G. Støen. 2019. Habituation, sensitization, or consistent behavioral responses? Brown bear responses after repeated approaches by humans on foot. Biological Conservation 232:228-237.  External resource

 

Peirce, K. N., and L. J. Van Daele. 2006. Use of a garbage dump by brown bears in Dillingham, Alaska. Ursus 17:165-177.  External resource

 

Penteriani, V., M. D. Delgado, F. Pinchera, J. Naves, A. Fernandez-Gil, I. Kojola, S. Harkonen, H. Norberg, J. Frank, J. M. Fedriani, V. Sahlen, O. G. Stoen, J. E. Swenson, P. Wabakken, M. Pellegrini, S. Herrero, and J. V. Lopez-Bao. 2016. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries. Scientific Reports 6:8.  Download

 

Peters, W., M. Hebblewhite, M. Cavedon, L. Pedrotti, A. Mustoni, F. Zibordi, C. Groff, M. Zanin, and F. Cagnacci. 2015. Resource selection and connectivity reveal conservation challenges for reintroduced brown bears in the Italian Alps. Biological Conservation 186:123-133.  External resource

 

Piedallu, B., P. Y. Quenette, C. Mounet, N. Lescureux, M. Borelli-Massines, E. Dubarry, J. J. Camarra, and O. Gimenez. 2016. Spatial variation in public attitudes towards brown bears in the French Pyrenees. Biological Conservation 197:90-97.  External resource

 

Pienaar, E. F., D. Telesco, and S. Barrett. 2015. Understanding people's willingness to implement measures to manage human-bear conflict in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Management 79:798-806.  External resource

 

Prajapati, U., V. K. Koli, and K. S. G. Sundar. 2021. Vulnerable sloth bears are attracted to human food waste: a novel situation in Mount Abu town, India. Oryx:1-9.  Download

Rajpurohit, K. S., and P. R. Krausman. 2000. Human-sloth-bear conflicts in Madhya Pradesh, India. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28:393-399.  External resource

 

Ratnayeke, S., F. T. Van Manen, R. Pieris, and V. S. J. Pragash. 2014. Challenges of large carnivore conservation: sloth bear attacks in Sri Lanka. Human Ecology 42:467-479.  External resource

 

Rigg, R., S. Findo, M. Wechselberger, M. L. Gorman, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and D. W. Macdonald. 2011. Mitigating carnivore-livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45:272-280.  External resource

 

Rode, J., L. Flinzberger, R. Karutz, A. Berghöfer, and C. Schröter-Schlaack. 2021. Why so negative? Exploring the socio-economic impacts of large carnivores from a European perspective. Biological Conservation 255:108918.  External resource

Rondinini, C., and L. Boitani. 2007. Systematic conservation planning and the cost of tackling conservation conflicts with large carnivores in Italy. Conservation Biology 21:1455-1462.  External resource

Roskaft, E., T. Bjerke, B. Kaltenborn, J. D. C. Linnell, and R. Andersen. 2003. Patterns of self-reported fear towards large carnivores among the Norwegian public. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:184-198.  External resource

 

Sakiyama, T., J. Morimoto, J. Matsubayashi, Y. Furukawa, M. Kondo, H. Tsuruga, T. Mano, and F. Nakamura. 2021. Factors influencing lifespan dependency on agricultural crops by brown bears. Landscape and Ecological Engineering.  External resource

Sakurai, R., S. K. Jacobson, and G. Ueda. 2013. Public perceptions of risk and government performance regarding bear management in Japan. Ursus 24:70-82.  External resource

Salvatori, V., E. Balian, J. C. Blanco, X. Carbonell, P. Ciucci, L. Demeter, A. Marino, A. Panzavolta, A. Sólyom, Y. von Korff, and J. C. Young. 2021. Are large carnivores the real issue? Solutions for improving conflict management through stakeholder participation. Sustainability 13:4482.  Download

Sangay, T., and K. Vernes. 2008. Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores. Biological Conservation 141:1272-1282.  External resource

 

Slagle, K., R. Zajac, J. Bruskotter, R. Wilson, and S. Prange. 2013. Building tolerance for bears: a communications experiment. The Journal of Wildlife Management 77:863-869.  External resource

 

Smith, J. B., C. K. Nielsen, and E. C. Hellgren. 2016. Suitable habitat for recolonizing large carnivores in the midwestern USA. Oryx 50:555-564.  External resource

 

Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation II. Aversive conditioning, deterrents and repellents. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:304-315.  External resource

 

Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation: I. Guardian animals. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:279-290.  External resource

 

Smith, T. S., S. Herrero, C. S. Layton, R. T. Larsen, and K. R. Johnson. 2012. Efficacy of firearms for bear deterrence in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:1021-1027.  External resource

 

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