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Deterrents & repellents

Deterrents & repellents

Guidance Documents

Responding to human-black bear conflicts: a guide to non-lethal bear management techniques (2015). (Get Bear Smart Society) External resource

Best practice guidelines for the prevention and mitigation of conflict between humans and great apes (2009). (Hockings, K., and Humle, T.) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Key Papers

Breck, S. W., N. Lance, and P. Callahan. 2006. A shocking device for protection of concentrated food sources from black bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:23-26. External resource

Breitenmoser, U., C. Angst, J.-M. Landry, C. Breitenmoser-Würsten, J. D. C. Linnell, and J.-M. Weber. 2005. Non-lethal techniques for reducing depredation. Pages 49-71 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. External resource

Campbell-Smith, G., R. Sembiring, and M. Linkie. 2012. Evaluating the effectiveness of human-orangutan conflict mitigation strategies in Sumatra. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:367-375. External resource

Chelliah, K., G. Kannan, S. Kundu, N. Abilash, A. Madhusudan, N. Baskaran, and R. Sukumar. 2010. Testing the efficacy of a chilli-tobacco rope fence as a deterrent against crop-raiding elephants. Current Science 99:1239-1243. External resource

Darrow, P. A., and J. A. Shivik. 2009. Bold, shy, and persistent: variable coyote response to light and sound stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116:82-87. External resource

Davies, T. E., S. Wilson, N. Hazarika, J. Chakrabarty, D. Das, D. J. Hodgson, and A. Zimmermann. 2011. Effectiveness of intervention methods against crop-raiding elephants. Conservation Letters 4:346-354. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Dieter, C. D., C. S. Warner, and C. Ren. 2014. Evaluation of foliar sprays to reduce crop damage by Canada geese. Human-Wildlife Interactions 8:139-149. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Eklund, A., J. V. López-Bao, M. Tourani, G. Chapron, and J. Frank. 2017. Limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. Scientific Reports 7:2097. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

González, L. M., F. G. D. Montoto, T. Mereck, J. Alves, J. Pereira, P. F. de Larrinoa, A. Maroto, L. Bolonio, and N. El-Kadhir. 2017. Preventing crop raiding by the vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in Guinea-Bissau. Oryx 51:222-229.
External resource

Gotz, T., and V. M. Janik. 2016. Non-lethal management of carnivore predation: long-term tests with a startle reflex-based deterrence system on a fish farm. Animal Conservation 19:212-221. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Graham, M. D., and T. Ochieng. 2008. Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42:76-82. External resource

Hedges, S., and D. Giunaryadi. 2010. Reducing human-elephant conflict: do chillies help deter elephants from entering crop fields? Oryx 44:139-146. External resource

Hill, C. M., and G. E. Wallace. 2012. Crop protection and conflict mitigation: reducing the costs of living alongside non-human primates. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:2569-2587. External resource

Hoare, R. 2012. Lessons from 15 years of human-elephant conflict mitigation: management considerations involving biological, physical and governance issues in Africa. Pachyderm:60-74. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Hsiao, S. S., C. Ross, C. M. Hill, and G. E. Wallace. 2013. Crop-raiding deterrents around Budongo Forest Reserve: an evaluation through farmer actions and perceptions. Oryx 47:569-577. External resource

King, L. E., I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2011. Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49:431-439. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

King, L. E., A. Lawrence, I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2009. Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology 47:131-137. External resource

Lance, N. J., S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik. 2010. Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus). Wildlife Research 37:708-714. External resource

Linnell, J. D., J. Odden, and A. Mertens. 2012. Mitigation methods for conflicts associated with carnivore depredation on livestock. Carnivore ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques:314-332. External resource

Mazur, R. L. 2010. Does aversive conditioning reduce human-black bear conflict? Journal of Wildlife Management 74:48-54. External resource

Miller, J. R. B., K. J. Stoner, M. R. Cejtin, T. K. Meyer, A. D. Middleton, and O. J. Schmitz. 2016. Effectiveness of contemporary techniques for reducing livestock depredations by large carnivores. Wildlife Society Bulletin 40:806-815. External resource

Nelson, A., P. Bidwell, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2003. A review of human-elephant conflict management strategies. People & Wildlife, A Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Born Free Foundation Partnership. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Osborn, F. V. 2002. Capsicum oleoresin as an elephant repellent: field trials in the communal lands of Zimbabwe. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:674-677. External resource

Parker, G. E., and F. V. Osborn. 2006. Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum spp. to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx 40:343-346. External resource

Pozo, R. A., T. Coulson, G. McCulloch, A. Stronza, and A. Songhurst. 2017. Chilli-briquettes modify the temporal behaviour of elephants, but not their numbers. Oryx:1-9. External resource

Shivik, J. A. 2006. Tools for the edge: what's new for conserving carnivores. Bioscience 56:253-259. External resource

Shivik, J. A., A. Treves, and P. Callahan. 2003. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17:1531-1537. External resource

Sitati, N. W., and M. J. Walpole. 2006. Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human-elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx 40:279-286. External resource

Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation II. Aversive conditioning, deterrents and repellents. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:304-315. External resource

Smith, T. S., S. Herrero, C. S. Layton, R. T. Larsen, and K. R. Johnson. 2012. Efficacy of firearms for bear deterrence in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:1021-1027. External resource

Stone, S. A., S. W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P. M. Haswell, F. Najera, B. S. Bean, and D. J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98:33-44. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Thuppil, V., and R. G. Coss. 2016. Playback of felid growls mitigates crop-raiding by elephants Elephas maximus in southern India. Oryx 50:329-335. External resource

Treves, A., Wallace, R. B. and White, S. 2009. Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts. Conservation Biology 23:1577-1587. External resource

van Eeden, L. M., M. S. Crowther, C. R. Dickman, D. W. Macdonald, W. J. Ripple, E. G. Ritchie, and T. M. Newsome. 2018. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock. Conservation Biology 32:26-34. External resource

Young, J. K., E. Miller, and A. Essex. 2015. Evaluating fladry designs to improve utility as a nonlethal management tool to reduce livestock depredation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39:429-433. External resource

Zarco-Gonzalez, M. M., and O. Monroy-Vilchis. 2014. Effectiveness of low-cost deterrents in decreasing livestock predation by felids: a case in Central Mexico. Animal Conservation 17:371-378. External resource

Zimmermann, A., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, S. Wilson, J. Chakrabarty, B. Hazarika, and D. Das. 2009. Community-based human-elephant conflict management in Assam. Gajah 30:34-40. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download