top of page

Snow leopard


Guidance Documents

Toolkit for champions: community livelihoods and snow leopard conservation (2016). (Snow Leopard Trust)  Download


Community engagement toolkit for field implementers and staff. A toolkit for collaborative conflict management for community livelihoods and snow leopard conservation (2016). (Snow Leopard Trust)  Download


The partners principles for community-based conservation (2016). (Mishra, C.)  Download

Key Papers

Ahmad, S., S. Hameed, H. Ali, T. U. Khan, T. Mehmood, and M. A. Nawaz. 2016. Carnivores' diversity and conflicts with humans in Musk Deer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62:565-576.  External resource


Alexander, J., P. J. Chen, P. Damerell, W. Youkui, J. Hughes, K. Shi, and P. Riordan. 2015. Human wildlife conflict involving large carnivores in Qilianshan, China and the minimal paw-print of snow leopards. Biological Conservation 187:1-9.  External resource


Alexander, J. S., B. Agvaantseren, E. Gongor, T. N. Mijiddorj, T. Piaopiao, S. Redpath, J. Young, and C. Mishra. 2021. Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based livestock insurance program. Environmental Management 68:87-99.  External resource

Alexander, J. S., A. Bijoor, K. Gurmet, R. Murali, C. Mishra, and K. R. Suryawanshi. 2022. Engaging women brings conservation benefits to snow leopard landscapes. Environmental Conservation:1-7.  External resource

Alexander, J. S., R. Murali, T. N. Mijiddorj, B. Agvaantseren, C. Lhamo, D. Sharma, K. R. Suryawanshi, L. Zhi, K. Sharma, and J. C. Young. 2023. Applying a gender lens to biodiversity conservation in High Asia. Frontiers in Conservation Science 4.   Download

Aryal, A., D. Brunton, W. H. Ji, R. K. Barraclough, and D. Raubenheimer. 2014. Human-carnivore conflict: ecological and economical sustainability of predation on livestock by snow leopard and other carnivores in the Himalaya. Sustainability Science 9:321-329.  External resource


Bagchi, S., and C. Mishra. 2006. Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Journal of Zoology 268:217-224.  External resource


Bijoor, A., M. Khanyari, R. Dorjay, S. Lobzang, and K. Suryawanshi. 2021. A need for context-based conservation: incorporating local knowledge to mitigate livestock predation by large carnivores. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Chen, P. J., Y. F. Gao, A. T. L. Lee, L. Cering, K. Shi, and S. G. Clark. 2016. Human-carnivore coexistence in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Nature Reserve, China: patterns and compensation. Biological Conservation 197:18-26.  External resource


Corcoran, W., and B. Fisher. 2021. Life with big cats: local perceptions of big cat species. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Filla, M., R. P. Lama, T. R. Ghale, T. Filla, M. Heurich, M. Waltert, and I. Khorozyan. 2022. Blue sheep strongly affect snow leopard relative abundance but not livestock depredation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Global Ecology and Conservation:e02153.   Download

Gao, Y., A. T. L. Lee, Y. Luo, J. S. Alexander, X. Shi, T. Sangpo, and S. G. Clark. 2023. Large carnivore encounters through the lens of mobile videos on social media. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e12907.   Download

Hussain, S. 2003. The status of the snow leopard in Pakistan and its conflict with local farmers. Oryx 37:26-33.  External resource


Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34.  External resource


Jackson, R., and R. Wangchuk. 2001. Linking snow leopard conservation and people-wildlife conflict resolution: grassroots measures to protect the endangered snow leopard from herder retribution. Endangered Species Update 18:138-141.  External resource


Jackson, R. M. 2015. HWC ten years later: successes and shortcomings of approaches to global snow leopard conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 20:310-316.  External resource


Jackson, R. M., and R. Wangchuk. 2004. A community-based approach to mitigating livestock depredation by snow leopards. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9:1-16.  External resource


Kachel, S., K. Anderson, and Q. Shokirov. 2022. Predicting carnivore habitat use and livestock depredation risk with false-positive multi-state occupancy models. Biological Conservation 271:109588.   External resource

Karki, A., and S. Panthi. 2021. Factors affecting livestock depredation by snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in the Himalayan region of Nepal. Peerj 9:e11575.  Download

Khorozyan, I., A. Ghoddousi, M. Soofi, and M. Waltert. 2015. Big cats kill more livestock when wild prey reaches a minimum threshold. Biological Conservation 192:268-275.  External resource


Lham, D., G. Cozzi, S. Sommer, S. Wangchuk, K. Lham, and A. Ozgul. 2021. Ecological determinants of livestock depredation by the snow leopard Panthera uncia in Bhutan. Journal of Zoology. External resource

Li, J., H. Yin, D. J. Wang, Z. L. Jiagong, and Z. Lu. 2013. Human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau. Biological Conservation 166:118-123.  External resource


Loch-Temzelides, T. 2021. Conservation, risk aversion, and livestock insurance: the case of the snow leopard. Conservation Letters. e12793.  Download

Lu, Q., L. Xiao, C. Cheng, Z. Lu, J. Zhao, and M. Yao. 2021. Snow leopard dietary preferences and livestock predation revealed by fecal DNA metabarcoding: no evidence for apparent competition between wild and domestic prey. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9.  Download

Mishra, C. 1997. Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans-Himalaya: conflict perceptions and conservation prospects. Environmental Conservation 24:338-343.  External resource


Mishra, C., P. Allen, T. McCarthy, M. Madhusudan, A. Bayarjargal, and H. H. Prins. 2003. The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard. Conservation Biology 17:1512-1520.  External resource


Mishra, C., J. C. Young, M. Fiechter, B. Rutherford, and S. M. Redpath. 2017. Building partnerships with communities for biodiversity conservation: lessons from Asian mountains. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:1583-1591.  Download


Oli, M. K., I. R. Taylor, and M. E. Rogers. 1994. Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation of livestock: an assessment of local perceptions in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Biological Conservation 68:63-68.  External resource


Pahuja, M., and R. K. Sharma. 2021. Wild predators, livestock, and free ranging dogs: patterns of livestock mortality and attitudes of people toward predators in an urbanizing Trans-Himalayan landscape. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Pettigrew, M., Y. Xie, A. Kang, M. Rao, J. Goodrich, T. Liu, and J. Berger. 2012. Human–carnivore conflict in China: a review of current approaches with recommendations for improved management. Integrative Zoology 7:210-226.  External resource


Piaopiao, T., K. Ramesh Suryawanshi, X. Lingyun, C. Mishra, L. Zhi, and J. Shanti Alexander. 2022. Factors shaping the tolerance of local Tibetan herders toward snow leopards. Journal for Nature Conservation:126305.   External resource

Rosen, T., S. Hussain, G. Mohammad, R. Jackson, J. E. Janecka, and S. Michel. 2012. Reconciling sustainable development of mountain communities with large carnivore conservation lessons from Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development 32:286-293.  Download


Sangay, T., and K. Vernes. 2008. Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores. Biological Conservation 141:1272-1282.  External resource


Shahi, K., S. Aryal, R. K. Blon, and G. Khanal. 2023. Examining livestock depredation and the determinants of people's attitudes towards snow leopards in the Himalayas of Nepal. Oryx:1-8.   Download

Sharma, R. K., Y. V. Bhatnagar, and C. Mishra. 2015. Does livestock benefit or harm snow leopards? Biological Conservation 190:8-13.  External resource


Suryawanshi, K. R., S. Bhatia, Y. V. Bhatnagar, S. Redpath, and C. Mishra. 2014. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves. Conservation Biology 28:1657-1666.  External resource


Suryawanshi, K. R., Y. V. Bhatnagar, S. Redpath, and C. Mishra. 2013. People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves. Journal of Applied Ecology 50:550-560.  External resource


Vannelli, K., M. P. Hampton, T. Namgail, and S. A. Black. 2019. Community participation in ecotourism and its effect on local perceptions of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-14.  External resource


Wegge, P., R. Shrestha, and Ø. Flagstad. 2012. Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation on livestock and wild prey in a mountain valley in northern Nepal: implications for conservation management. Wildlife Biology 18:131-141.  Download


Wilman, E. A., and E. N. Wilman. 2016. Modeling outcomes of approaches to sustained human and snow leopard coexistence. Conservation Biology 30:50-58.  External resource

Young, J. C., J. S. Alexander, A. Bijoor, D. Sharma, A. Dutta, B. Agvaantseren, T. N. Mijiddorj, K. Jumabay, V. Amankul, B. Kabaeva, A. Nawaz, S. Khan, H. Ali, J. S. Rullman, K. Sharma, R. Murali, and C. Mishra. 2021. Community-based conservation for the sustainable management of conservation conflicts: learning from practitioners. Sustainability 13:7557.  Download

Xiao, L., F. Hua, J. M. H. Knops, X. Zhao, C. Mishra, S. Lovari, J. S. Alexander, B. Weckworth, and Z. Lu. 2022. Spatial separation of prey from livestock facilitates coexistence of a specialized large carnivore with human land use. Animal Conservation.   External resource

Books and book chapters

Jackson, R. 2012. Fostering community-based stewardship of wildlife in Central Asia: transforming snow leopards from pests into valued assets. Pages 357-380 in V. Squires, editor. Rangeland stewardship in Central Asia: balancing improved livelihoods, biodiversity conservation and land protection. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.  External resource


Jackson, R. M., C. Mishra, T. M. McCarthy, and S. B. Ale. 2010. Snow leopards: conflict and conservation. Pages 417-430 in D. W. Macdonald and A. J. Loveridge, editors. The biology and conservation of wild felids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
 External resource


Mishra, C., S. R. Redpath, and K. R. Suryawanshi. 2016. Livestock predation by snow leopards: conflicts and the search for solutions. Pages 59-67 in T. M. McCarthy, D. Mallon, and P. Nyhus, editors. Snow leopards. Academic Press.  External resource


bottom of page