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Key Papers

Baker, J. D., B. L. Becker, T. A. Wurth, T. C. Johanos, C. L. Littnan, and J. R. Henderson. 2011. Translocation as a tool for conservation of the Hawaiian monk seal. Biological Conservation 144:2692-2701.  External resource

Bell, S., K. Hampshire, and M. Tonder. 2008. Person, place, and knowledge in the conservation of the Saimaa ringed seal. Society & Natural Resources 21:277-293.  External resource

Bogomolni, A., O. C. Nichols, and D. Allen. 2021. A community science approach to conservation challenges posed by rebounding marine mammal populations: seal-fishery interactions in New England. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Bombau, A., and D. Szteren. 2017. Seasonal variability of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lions (Otaria flavescens) in two haulouts and interactions with small-scale fisheries off the coast of Montevideo, Uruguay. Aquatic Mammals 43.  External resource

Breen, P. A., R. Hilborn, M. N. Maunder, and S. W. Kim. 2003. Effects of alternative control rules on the conflict between a fishery and a threatened sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60:527-541.  External resource

Bruckmeier, K., and C. Höj Larsen. 2008. Swedish coastal fisheries—from conflict mitigation to participatory management. Marine Policy 32:201-211.  External resource

Butler, J. R. A., S. J. Middlemas, I. M. Graham, and R. N. Harris. 2011. Perceptions and costs of seal impacts on Atlantic salmon fisheries in the Moray Firth, Scotland: implications for the adaptive co-management of seal-fishery conflict. Marine Policy 35:317-323.  External resource

Butler, J. R. A., S. J. Middlemas, S. A. McKelvey, I. McMyn, B. Leyshon, I. Walker, P. M. Thompson, I. L. Boyd, C. Duck, J. D. Armstrong, I. M. Graham, and J. M. Baxter. 2008. The Moray Firth Seal Management Plan: an adaptive framework for balancing the conservation of seals, salmon, fisheries and wildlife tourism in the UK. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18:1025-1038.  External resource

Butler, J. R. A., J. C. Young, I. A. G. McMyn, B. Leyshon, I. M. Graham, I. Walker, J. M. Baxter, J. Dodd, and C. Warburton. 2015. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: learning from seals and salmon. Journal of Environmental Management 160:212-225.  Download

Calamnius, L., M. Lundin, A. Fjälling, and S. Königson. 2018. Pontoon trap for salmon and trout equipped with a seal exclusion device catches larger salmons. Plos One 13:e0201164.  Download

Cook, T. C., K. James, and M. Bearzi. 2015. Angler perceptions of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) depredation and marine policy in Southern California. Marine Policy 51:573-583.  External resource

Cosgrove, R., M. Gosch, D. Reid, M. Sheridan, N. Chopin, M. Jessopp, and M. Cronin. 2015. Seal depredation in bottom-set gillnet and entangling net fisheries in Irish waters. Fisheries Research 172:335-344.  External resource

Cronin, M., H. Gerritsen, D. Reid, and M. Jessopp. 2016. Spatial overlap of grey seals and fisheries in Irish waters, some new insights using telemetry technology and VMS. Plos One 11:e0160564.  Download

Cronin, M., M. Jessopp, J. Houle, and D. Reid. 2014. Fishery-seal interactions in Irish waters: current perspectives and future research priorities. Marine Policy 44:120-130.  External resource

Cummings, C. R., M. A. Lea, and J. M. Lyle. 2019. Fur seals and fisheries in Tasmania: an integrated case study of human-wildlife conflict and coexistence. Biological Conservation 236:532-542.  External resource

Davis, K. J., J. Alfaro-Shigueto, W. N. S. Arlidge, M. Burton, J. C. Mangel, M. Mills, E. J. Milner-Gulland, J. Palma-Duque, C. Romero-de-Diego, and S. Gelcich. 2021. Local disconnects in global discourses—the unintended consequences of marine mammal protection on small-scale fishers. Conservation Letters n/a:e12835.  Download

de la Torriente, A., R. A. Quiñones, D. A. Miranda-Urbina, and F. Echevarría. 2009. South American sea lion and spiny dogfish predation on artisanal catches of southern hake in fjords of Chilean Patagonia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67:294-303.  Download

De María, M., F. R. Barboza, and D. Szteren. 2014. Predation of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) on artisanal fisheries in the Rio de la Plata estuary. Fisheries Research 149:69-73.  External resource

Engel, M. T., S. Marchini, A. C. Pont, R. Machado, and L. R. de Oliveira. 2014. Perceptions and attitudes of stakeholders towards the wildlife refuge of Ilha dos Lobos, a marine protected area in Brazil. Marine Policy 45:45-51.  External resource


Engel, M. T., J. J. Vaske, and A. J. Bath. 2021. Seal hunting in Newfoundland from the perspective of local people. Marine Policy 128:104491.  External resource

Findlay, C. R., H. D. Ripple, F. Coomber, K. Froud, O. Harries, N. C. F. van Geel, S. V. Calderan, S. Benjamins, D. Risch, and B. Wilson. 2018. Mapping widespread and increasing underwater noise pollution from acoustic deterrent devices. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135:1042-1050.  External resource

Fjälling, A. 2005. The estimation of hidden seal-inflicted losses in the Baltic Sea set-trap salmon fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62:1630-1635.  Download

Forrest, K. W., J. D. Cave, C. G. J. Michielsens, M. Haulena, and D. V. Smith. 2009. Evaluation of an electric gradient to deter seal predation on salmon caught in gill-net test fisheries. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 29:885-894.  External resource

Fujimori, Y., Y. Ochi, S. Yamasaki, R. Ito, Y. Kobayashi, J. Yamamoto, O. Tamaru, Y. Kuramoto, and Y. Sakurai. 2018. Optical and acoustic camera observations of the behavior of the Kuril harbor seal Phoca vitulina stejnegeri after invading a salmon setnet. Fisheries Science 84:953-961.  External resource

Glain, D., S. Kotomatas, and S. Adamantopoulou. 2001. Fishermen and seal conservation: survey of attitudes towards monk seals in Greece and grey seals in Cornwall. Mammalia 65:309-318.  External resource

Goetz, S., M. Wolff, W. Stotz, and M. J. Villegas. 2008. Interactions between the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) and the artisanal fishery off Coquimbo, northern Chile. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65:1739-1746.  Download

González, A., R. Vega, and E. Yáñez. 2015. Operational interactions between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and purse seine fishing activities in northern Chile. Revista de biología marina y oceanografía 50:479-489.  External resource

Götz, T., and V. M. Janik. 2013. Acoustic deterrent devices to prevent pinniped depredation: efficiency, conservation concerns and possible solutions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 492:285-302.  Download

Götz, T., and V. M. Janik. 2015. Target-specific acoustic predator deterrence in the marine environment. Animal Conservation 18:102-111.  External resource

Götz, T., and V. M. Janik. 2016. Non-lethal management of carnivore predation: long-term tests with a startle reflex-based deterrence system on a fish farm. Animal Conservation 19:212-221.  Download

Graham, I. M., R. N. Harris, B. Denny, D. Fowden, and D. Pullan. 2009. Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent device for excluding seals from Atlantic salmon rivers in Scotland. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66:860-864.  Download

Graham, I. M., R. N. Harris, I. Matejusová, and S. J. Middlemas. 2011. Do ‘rogue’ seals exist? Implications for seal conservation in the UK. Animal Conservation 14:587-598.  Download

Graham, I. M., R. N. Harris, and S. J. Middlemas. 2011. Seals, salmon and stakeholders: integrating knowledge to reduce biodiversity conflict. Animal Conservation 14:604-607.  Download

Güçlüsoy, H. 2008. Damage by monk seals to gear of the artisanal fishery in the Foça Monk Seal Pilot Conservation Area, Turkey. Fisheries Research 90:70-77.  Download

Guerra, A. S. 2019. Wolves of the sea: managing human-wildlife conflict in an increasingly tense ocean. Marine Policy 99:369-373.  External resource

Hamer, D. J., and S. D. Goldsworthy. 2006. Seal–fishery operational interactions: identifying the environmental and operational aspects of a trawl fishery that contribute to by-catch and mortality of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Biological Conservation 130:517-529.  External resource

Hamilton, S., and G. B. Baker. 2019. Technical mitigation to reduce marine mammal bycatch and entanglement in commercial fishing gear: lessons learnt and future directions. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29:223-247.  External resource

Hemmingsson, M., A. Fjälling, and S.-G. Lunneryd. 2008. The pontoon trap: description and function of a seal-safe trap-net. Fisheries Research 93:357-359.  External resource

Jackman, J., L. Bettencourt, J. Vaske, M. Sweeney, K. Bloom, A. Rutberg, and B. Brook. 2018. Conflict and consensus in stakeholder views of seal management on Nantucket Island, MA, USA. Marine Policy 95:166-173.  External resource

Johansson, M., and Å. Waldo. 2021. Local people’s appraisal of the fishery-seal situation in traditional fishing villages on the Baltic Sea Coast in southeast Sweden. Society & Natural Resources 34:271-290.  Download

Jounela, P., P. Suuronen, R. B. Millar, and M.-L. Koljonen. 2006. Interactions between grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and harvest controls on the salmon fishery in the Gulf of Bothnia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63:936-945.  Download

Kastelein, R. A., M. Horvers, L. Helder-Hoek, S. Van de Voorde, R. ter Hofstede, and H. van der Meij. 2017. Behavioral responses of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to FaunaGuard seal module sounds at two background noise levels. Aquatic Mammals 43.  External resource

Kastelein, R. A., S. van der Heul, J. M. Terhune, W. C. Verboom, and R. J. V. Triesscheijn. 2006. Deterring effects of 8–45kHz tone pulses on harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in a large pool. Marine Environmental Research 62:356-373.  External resource

Kauppinen, T., A. Siira, and P. Suuronen. 2005. Temporal and regional patterns in seal-induced catch and gear damage in the coastal trap-net fishery in the northern Baltic Sea: effect of netting material on damage. Fisheries Research 73:99-109.  External resource

Kittinger, J. N., T. M. Bambico, T. K. Watson, and E. W. Glazier. 2012. Sociocultural significance of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal and the human dimensions of conservation planning. Endangered Species Research 17:139-156.  Download

Königson, S., A. Fjälling, M. Berglind, and S.-G. Lunneryd. 2013. Male gray seals specialize in raiding salmon traps. Fisheries Research 148:117-123.  Download

Königson, S., J. Lövgren, J. Hjelm, M. Ovegård, F. Ljunghager, and S.-G. Lunneryd. 2015. Seal exclusion devices in cod pots prevent seal bycatch and affect their catchability of cod. Fisheries Research 167:114-122.  External resource

Konrad, L., and A. Levine. 2021. Controversy over beach access restrictions at an urban coastal seal rookery: exploring the drivers of conflict escalation and endurance at Children’s Pool Beach in La Jolla, CA. Marine Policy 132:104659.  Download

Lehtonen, E., and P. Suuronen. 2004. Mitigation of seal-induced damage in salmon and whitefish trapnet fisheries by modification of the fish bag. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61:1195-1200.  Download

Lunneryd, S. G., A. Fjälling, and H. Westerberg. 2003. A large-mesh salmon trap: a way of mitigating seal impact on a coastal fishery. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60:1194-1199.  Download

Lyle, J. M., S. T. Willcox, K. Hartmann, and J. M. Jech. 2016. Underwater observations of seal–fishery interactions and the effectiveness of an exclusion device in reducing bycatch in a midwater trawl fishery. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 73:436-444.  External resource


Machado, R. 2022. Ingestion of fishing items by South American sea lion in southern Brazil: indicating a neglected problem. Fisheries Research 255:106459.   External resource

Machado, R., L. R. de Oliveira, P. H. Ott, M. Haimovici, L. G. Cardoso, L. Milmann, M. A. Romero, R. A. dos Santos, and M. Borges-Martins. 2020. Trophic overlap between marine mammals and fisheries in subtropical waters in the western South Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 639:215-232.  External resource

Machado, R., P. H. Ott, I. B. Moreno, D. Danilewicz, M. Tavares, E. A. Crespo, S. Siciliano, and L. Rosa De Oliveira. 2016. Operational interactions between South American sea lions and gillnet fishing in southern Brazil. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 26:108-120.  External resource

Moore, P. G. 2003. Seals and fisheries in the Clyde Sea area (Scotland): traditional knowledge informs science. Fisheries Research 63:51-61.  External resource

Murray, K. T., J. M. Hatch, R. A. DiGiovanni, Jr., and E. Josephson. 2021. Tracking young-of-the-year gray seals Halichoerus grypus to estimate fishery encounter risk. Marine Ecology Progress Series 671:235-245.  External resource

Oksanen, S. M., M. Niemi, M. P. Ahola, and M. Kunnasranta. 2015. Identifying foraging habitats of Baltic ringed seals using movement data. Movement Ecology 3:33.  Download

Oliveira, L. R. d., A. C. Pont, R. Machado, M. T. Engel, P. H. Ott, E. A. Crespo, and S. Marchini. 2020. Assessing the economic impact caused by South American sea lions based on onboard check versus fishermen's perception: the two sides of the same coin. Marine Policy:104193.  External resource

Olsen, M. T., A. Galatius, and T. Härkönen. 2018. The history and effects of seal-fishery conflicts in Denmark. Marine Ecology Progress Series 595:233-243.  External resource

Pont, A. C., S. Marchini, M. T. Engel, R. Machado, P. H. Ott, E. A. Crespo, M. Coscarella, M. S. Dalzochio, and L. R. de Oliveira. 2016. The human dimension of the conflict between fishermen and South American sea lions in southern Brazil. Hydrobiologia 770:89-104.  External resource

Read, A. J. 2008. The looming crisis: interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. Journal of Mammalogy 89:541-548.  Download

Reyes, P., R. Hucke-Gaete, and J. P. Torres-Florez. 2013. First observations of operational interactions between bottom-trawling fisheries and South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens in south-central Chile. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93:489-494.  External resource

Ríos, N., M. Drakulic, I. Paradinas, A. Milliou, and R. Cox. 2017. Occurrence and impact of interactions between small-scale fisheries and predators, with focus on Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus Hermann 1779), around Lipsi Island complex, Aegean Sea, Greece. Fisheries Research 187:1-10.  External resource

Robinson, S., A. Terauds, R. Gales, and M. Greenwood. 2008. Mitigating fur seal interactions: relocation from Tasmanian aquaculture farms. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18:1180-1188.  External resource

Schakner, Z., C. Purdy, and D. T. Blumstein. 2019. Contrasting attitudes and perceptions of California sea lions by recreational anglers and the media. Marine Policy 109:103710.  External resource

Schakner, Z. A., and D. T. Blumstein. 2013. Behavioral biology of marine mammal deterrents: a review and prospectus. Biological Conservation 167:380-389.  External resource

Schakner, Z. A., T. Götz, V. M. Janik, and D. T. Blumstein. 2017. Can fear conditioning repel California sea lions from fishing activities? Animal Conservation 20:425-432.  External resource

Seco Pon, J. P., G. García, S. Copello, A. Moretinni, H. P. Lértora, J. Pedrana, L. Mauco, and M. Favero. 2012. Seabird and marine mammal attendance in the Chub mackerel Scomber japonicus semi-industrial Argentinian purse seine fishery. Ocean & Coastal Management 64:56-66.  External resource

Sepúlveda, M., T. Martínez, D. Oliva, P. Couve, G. Pavez, C. Navarro, M. Stehlik, L. R. Durán, and G. Luna-Jorquera. 2018. Factors affecting the operational interaction between the South American sea lions and the artisan gillnet fishery in Chile. Fisheries Research 201:147-152.  External resource

Sepúlveda, M., M. J. Pérez, W. Sielfeld, D. Oliva, L. R. Durán, L. Rodríguez, V. Araos, and M. Buscaglia. 2007. Operational interaction between South American sea lions Otaria flavescens and artisanal (small-scale) fishing in Chile: results from interview surveys and on-board observations. Fisheries Research 83:332-340.  External resource

Shaughnessy, P. D., A. Semmelink, J. Cooper, and P. G. H. Frost. 1981. Attempts to develop acoustic methods of keeping cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus from fishing nets. Biological Conservation 21:141-158.  External resource

Stavenow, J., P. Ljungberg, L. Kindt-Larsen, S. Lunneryd, and S. Königson. 2016. What attracts Baltic sea grey seals to seal-safe cod pots and when do they attempt to attack fish in the pots? Journal of Ocean Technology 11:91-107.  External resource

Suuronen, P., A. Siira, T. Kauppinen, R. Riikonen, E. Lehtonen, and H. Harjunpää. 2006. Reduction of seal-induced catch and gear damage by modification of trap-net design: design principles for a seal-safe trap-net. Fisheries Research 79:129-138.  External resource

Szteren, D., and E. Páez. 2003. Predation by southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens) on artisanal fishing catches in Uruguay. Marine and Freshwater Research 53:1161-1167.  External resource

Thompson, P. M., B. Mackey, T. R. Barton, C. Duck, and J. R. A. Butler. 2007. Assessing the potential impact of salmon fisheries management on the conservation status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in north-east Scotland. Animal Conservation 10:48-56.  External resource


Tidwell, K. S., B. A. Carrothers, D. T. Blumstein, and Z. A. Schakner. 2021. Steller seal lion (Eumetopias jubatus) response to non-lethal hazing at Bonneville dam. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Tixier, P., M.-A. Lea, M. A. Hindell, D. Welsford, C. Mazé, S. Gourguet, and J. P. Y. Arnould. 2020. When large marine predators feed on fisheries catches: global patterns of the depredation conflict and directions for coexistence. Fish and Fisheries 22:31-53.  External resource

Trijoulet, V., H. Dobby, S. J. Holmes, and R. M. Cook. 2018. Bioeconomic modelling of grey seal predation impacts on the West of Scotland demersal fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 75:1374-1382.  Download

van den Hoff, J., R. Kilpatrick, and D. Welsford. 2017. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina Linn.) depredate toothfish longlines in the midnight zone. Plos One 12:e0172396.  Download

Varjopuro, R. 2011. Co-existence of seals and fisheries? Adaptation of a coastal fishery for recovery of the Baltic grey seal. Marine Policy 35:450-456.  External resource

Varjopuro, R., and P. Salmi. 2007. Complexities in keeping seals away from the catch - building 'seal-proof' fishing gear.  Download

Vilata, J., D. Oliva, and M. Sepúlveda. 2009. The predation of farmed salmon by South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) in southern Chile. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67:475-482.  Download

Weise, M. J., and J. T. Harvey. 2005. Impact of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in Monterey Bay, California. Fishery Bulletin 103:685-696.  Download

Westerberg, H., S. Lunneryd, M. Wahlberg, and A. Fjälling. 2007. Reconciling fisheries activities with the conservation of seals through the development of new fishing gear: a case study from the Baltic fishery - grey seal conflict. Pages 587-597.  External resource

Wickens, P. A., D. W. Japp, P. A. Shelton, F. Kriel, P. C. Goosen, B. Rose, C. J. Augustyn, C. A. R. Bross, A. J. Penney, and R. G. Krohn. 1992. Seals and fisheries in South Africa — competition and conflict. South African Journal of Marine Science 12:773-789.  Download

Books and book chapters

Schakner, Z. A., and D. T. Blumstein. 2021. The California sea lion: thriving in a human-dominated world. Pages 347-365 in C. Campagna and R. Harcourt, editors. Ethology and behavioral ecology of otariids and the odobenid. Springer International Publishing, Cham.  External resource

Sprague, R. S., and M. M. Draheim. 2015. Hawaiian monk seals: labels, names, and stories in conflict. Pages 117-136 in M. M. Draheim, F. Madden, J.-B. Mccarthy, and C. Parsons, editors. Human-wildlife conflict: complexity in the marine environment. . Oxford University, Oxford.  External resource


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