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Electric fences

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Guidance Documents

Guide for implementing community-based electric fences for the effective mitigation of human-elephant conflict (2020). (Fernando, P)

English  Download       French  Download


Bears and electric fencing: a starter's guide for using electric fencing to deter bears (2010). (Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks)  External resource

Practical electric fencing resource guide: controlling predators (2009). (Living with Wildlife Foundation)  External resource

Key Papers

Creel, S., M. S. Becker, S. M. Durant, J. M'Soka, W. Matandiko, A. J. Dickman, D. Christianson, E. Dröge, T. Mweetwa, N. Pettorelli, E. Rosenblatt, P. Schuette, R. Woodroffe, S. Bashir, R. C. Beudels-Jamar, S. Blake, M. Borner, C. Breitenmoser, F. Broekhuis, G. Cozzi, T. R. B. Davenport, J. Deutsch, L. Dollar, S. Dolrenry, I. Douglas-Hamilton, E. Fitzherbert, C. Foley, L. Hazzah, P. Henschel, R. Hilborn, J. G. C. Hopcraft, D. Ikanda, A. Jacobson, B. Joubert, D. Joubert, M. S. Kelly, L. Lichtenfeld, G. M. Mace, J. Milanzi, N. Mitchell, M. Msuha, R. Muir, J. Nyahongo, S. Pimm, G. Purchase, C. Schenck, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A. R. E. Sinclair, A. N. Songorwa, M. Stanley-Price, C. A. Tehou, C. Trout, J. Wall, G. Wittemyer, and A. Zimmermann. 2013. Conserving large populations of lions – the argument for fences has holes. Ecology Letters 16:1413-e1413.  External resource  


Davies, T. E., S. Wilson, N. Hazarika, J. Chakrabarty, D. Das, D. J. Hodgson, and A. Zimmermann. 2011. Effectiveness of intervention methods against crop-raiding elephants. Conservation Letters 4:346-354.  Download


de la Torre, J. A., G. Camacho, P. Arroyo-Gerala, I. Cassaigne, M. Rivero, and A. Campos-Arceiz. 2021. A cost-effective approach to mitigate conflict between ranchers and large predators: a case study with jaguars in the Mayan Forest. Biological Conservation 256:109066.  External resource

Durant, S. M., M. S. Becker, S. Creel, S. Bashir, A. J. Dickman, R. C. Beudels-Jamar, L. Lichtenfeld, R. Hilborn, J. Wall, G. Wittemyer, L. Badamjav, S. Blake, L. Boitani, C. Breitenmoser, F. Broekhuis, D. Christianson, G. Cozzi, T. R. B. Davenport, J. Deutsch, P. Devillers, L. Dollar, S. Dolrenry, I. Douglas-Hamilton, E. Droge, E. FitzHerbert, C. Foley, L. Hazzah, J. G. C. Hopcraft, D. Ikanda, A. Jacobson, D. Joubert, M. J. Kelly, J. Milanzi, N. Mitchell, J. M'Soka, M. Msuha, T. Mweetwa, J. Nyahongo, E. Rosenblatt, P. Schuette, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A. R. E. Sinclair, M. R. Price, A. Zimmermann, and N. Pettorelli. 2015. Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:544-551.  Download


Evans, L. A., and W. M. Adams. 2016. Fencing elephants: the hidden politics of wildlife fencing in Laikipia, Kenya. Land Use Policy 51:215-228.  Download


Feuerbacher, A., C. Lippert, J. Kuenzang, and K. Subedi. 2021. Low-cost electric fencing for peaceful coexistence: an analysis of human-wildlife conflict mitigation strategies in smallholder agriculture. Biological Conservation 255:108919.  External resource

Frank, J., and A. Eklund. 2017. Poor construction, not time, takes its toll on subsidised fences designed to deter large carnivores. Plos One 12:e0175211.  Download


González, L. M., F. G. D. Montoto, T. Mereck, J. Alves, J. Pereira, P. F. de Larrinoa, A. Maroto, L. Bolonio, and N. El-Kadhir. 2017. Preventing crop raiding by the vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in Guinea-Bissau. Oryx 51:222-229.
 External resource


Hayward, M. W., and G. I. H. Kerley. 2009. Fencing for conservation: restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes? Biological Conservation 142:1-13.  External resource


Hoare, R. 2012. Lessons from 15 years of human-elephant conflict mitigation: management considerations involving biological, physical and governance issues in Africa. Pachyderm:60-74.  Download


Hoare, R. E. 1992. Present and future use of fencing in the management of larger African mammals. Environmental Conservation 19:160-164.  External resource


Karlsson, J., and M. Sjöström. 2011. Subsidized fencing of livestock as a means of increasing tolerance for wolves. Ecology and Society 16.  Download


Kesch, M. K., D. T. Bauer, and A. J. Loveridge. 2015. Break on through to the other side: the effectiveness of game fencing to mitigate human-wildlife conflict. African Journal of Wildlife Research 45:76-87.  External resource


Kioko, J., P. Muruthi, P. Omondi, and P. I. Chiyo. 2008. The performance of electric fences as elephant barriers in Amboseli, Kenya. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 38:52-58.  External resource


Lance, N. J., S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik. 2010. Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus). Wildlife Research 37:708-714.  External resource


Levin, M. 2002. How to prevent damage from large predators with electric fences. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 5:5-8.  External resource


Miller, J. R. B., K. J. Stoner, M. R. Cejtin, T. K. Meyer, A. D. Middleton, and O. J. Schmitz. 2016. Effectiveness of contemporary techniques for reducing livestock depredations by large carnivores. Wildlife Society Bulletin 40:806-815.  External resource


Mutinda, M., G. Chenge, F. Gakuya, M. Otiende, P. Omondi, S. Kasiki, R. C. Soriguer, and S. Alasaad. 2014. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation. Plos One 9:7.  Download


Nelson, A., P. Bidwell, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2003. A review of human-elephant conflict management strategies. People & Wildlife, A Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Born Free Foundation Partnership.  Download


O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E., T. Rodwell, M. Rice, and L. A. Hart. 2000. Living with the modern conservation paradigm: can agricultural communities co-exist with elephants? A five-year case study in East Caprivi, Namibia. Biological Conservation 93:381-391.  External resource


Okello, M. M., and D. E. D'Amour. 2008. Agricultural expansion within Kimana electric fences and implications for natural resource conservation around Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments 72:2179-2192.  External resource


Osipova, L., M. M. Okello, S. J. Njumbi, S. Ngene, D. Western, M. W. Hayward, and N. Balkenhol. 2018. Fencing solves human-wildlife conflict locally but shifts problems elsewhere: a case study using functional connectivity modelling of the African elephant. Journal of Applied Ecology.  External resource


Packer, C., A. Loveridge, S. Canney, T. Caro, S. T. Garnett, M. Pfeifer, K. K. Zander, A. Swanson, D. MacNulty, G. Balme, H. Bauer, C. M. Begg, K. S. Begg, S. Bhalla, C. Bissett, T. Bodasing, H. Brink, A. Burger, A. C. Burton, B. Clegg, S. Dell, A. Delsink, T. Dickerson, S. M. Dloniak, D. Druce, L. Frank, P. Funston, N. Gichohi, R. Groom, C. Hanekom, B. Heath, L. Hunter, H. H. DeIongh, C. J. Joubert, S. M. Kasiki, B. Kissui, W. Knocker, B. Leathem, P. A. Lindsey, S. D. Maclennan, J. W. McNutt, S. M. Miller, S. Naylor, P. Nel, C. Ng'weno, K. Nicholls, J. O. Ogutu, E. Okot-Omoya, B. D. Patterson, A. Plumptre, J. Salerno, K. Skinner, R. Slotow, E. A. Sogbohossou, K. J. Stratford, C. Winterbach, H. Winterbach, and S. Polasky. 2013. Conserving large carnivores: dollars and fence. Ecology Letters 16:635-641.  External resource

Pekor, A., J. R. B. Miller, M. V. Flyman, S. Kasiki, M. K. Kesch, S. M. Miller, K. Uiseb, V. van der Merve, and P. A. Lindsey. 2019. Fencing Africa's protected areas: costs, benefits, and management issues. Biological Conservation 229:67-75.  External resource

Sapkota, S., A. Aryal, S. R. Baral, M. W. Hayward, and D. Raubenheimer. 2014. Economic analysis of electric fencing for mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Nepal. Journal of Resources and Ecology 5:237-243.  External resource

Thouless, C. R., and J. Sakwa. 1995. Shocking elephants - fences and crop raiders in Laikipia distirct, Kenya. Biological Conservation 72:99-107.  External resource

Van Eden, M., E. Ellis, and B. L. Bruyere. 2016. The influence of human–elephant conflict on electric fence management and perception among different rural communities in Laikipia County, Kenya. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 21:283-296.  External resource

Wilkinson, C. E., A. McInturff, M. Kelly, and J. S. Brashares. 2021. Quantifying wildlife responses to conservation fencing in East Africa. Biological Conservation 256:109071. External resource

Zimmermann, A., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, S. Wilson, J. Chakrabarty, B. Hazarika, and D. Das. 2009. Community-based human-elephant conflict management in Assam. Gajah 30:34-40.  Download  

Books and book chapters

Cavalcanti, S. M. C., P. G. Crawshaw, and F. R. Tortato. 2012. Use of electric fencing and associated measures as deterrents to jaguar predation on cattle in the Pantanal of Brazil. Pages 295-309 in M. J. Somers and M. Hayward, editors. Fencing for conservation: restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes? Springer New York, New York, NY.  External resource


Knickerbocker, T. J., and J. Waithaka. 2005. People and elephants in the Shimba Hills, Kenya. Pages 224-238 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource

Linnell, J. D., J. Odden, and A. Mertens. 2012. Mitigation methods for conflicts associated with carnivore depredation on livestock. Carnivore ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques:314-332.  External resource



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