Crocodilians

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Guidance Documents

Croc digest: a bibliography of human-crocodile conflicts research and reports, 3rd edition (2020). (Pooley, S.)  Download

 

Don't get eaten by a croc (poster, editions for South Africa and Swaziland, and Gujarat, India) (2017). (Pooley, S.)  External resource

 

Don’t get eaten by a crocodile: in South Africa or Swaziland (2015). (Pooley, S.)  Download  

 

Crocodile and alligator safety for field researchers (2007). (Ross, J.P.)  Download

Key Papers

Amarasinghe, A. T., M. B. Madawala, D. S. Karunarathna, S. C. Manolis, A. de Silva, and R. Sommerlad. 2015. Human-crocodile conflict and conservation implications of Saltwater Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus (Reptilia: Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) in Sri Lanka. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7:7111-7130.  Download

 

Aust, P., B. Boyle, R. Fergusson, and T. Coulson. 2009. The impact of Nile crocodiles on rural livelihoods in northeastern Namibia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39:57-69.  External resource

Balaguera-Reina, S., and N. Farfán Ardila. 2018. Are we ready for successful apex predator conservation in Colombia? Human-crocodilian interactions as a study case. Herpetological Review 49:5-12.  External resource

 

Balaguera-Reina, S. A. 2012. Attacks and human-crocodile conflict in local communities in Colombia. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 31:12-14.  Download

 

Brackhane, S., G. Webb, F. M. E. Xavier, J. Trindade, M. Gusmao, and P. Pechacek. 2019. Crocodile management in Timor-Leste: drawing upon traditional ecological knowledge and cultural beliefs. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 24:314-331.  External resource

 

Brien, M. L., C. M. Gienger, C. A. Browne, M. A. Read, M. J. Joyce, and S. Sullivan. 2017. Patterns of human–crocodile conflict in Queensland: a review of historical estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) management. Wildlife Research 44:281-290.  External resource

 

Caldicott, D. G. E., D. Croser, C. Manolis, G. Webb, and A. Britton. 2005. Crocodile attack in Australia: an analysis of its incidence and review of the pathology and management of crocodilian attacks in general. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 16:143-159.  External resource

 

Campbell, H. A., R. G. Dwyer, H. Wilson, T. R. Irwin, and C. E. Franklin. 2015. Predicting the probability of large carnivore occurrence: a strategy to promote crocodile and human coexistence. Animal Conservation 18:387-395.  External resource

 

Cavalier, R., E. N. Pratt, C. Serenari, and E. C. Rubino. 2021. Human dimensions of crocodilians: a review of the drivers of coexistence. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-17.  External resource

Cureg, M., A. Bagunu, M. Weerd, M. Balbas, D. Soler, and J. Ploeg. 2016. A longitudinal evaluation of the communication, education and public awareness (CEPA) campaign for the Philippine crocodile Crocodylus mindorensis in northern Luzon, Philippines. International Zoo Yearbook 50:68-83.  External resource

 

Das, C. S., and R. Jana. 2018. Human–crocodile conflict in the Indian Sundarban: an analysis of spatio-temporal incidences in relation to people's livelihood. Oryx 52:661-668.  External resource

 

Dunham, K. M., A. Ghiurghi, R. Cumbi, and F. Urbano. 2010. Human-wildlife conflict in Mozambique: a national perspective, with emphasis on wildlife attacks on humans. Oryx 44:185-193.  External resource

 

Dutton, H. J., J. E. Waller, D. A. Carbonneau, L. J. Hord, S. G. Stiegler, A. R. Woodward, A. M. Brunell, C. C. Carter, and J. P. Delaney. 2014. Florida’s alligator management program: an update 2002-2014. Pages 60-71 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Group Meeting of the IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

Fukuda, Y., C. Manolis, K. Saalfeld, and A. Zuur. 2015. Dead or alive? Factors affecting the survival of victims during attacks by saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) in Australia. Plos One 10:12.  Download

 

Fukuda, Y., Manolis, C. and Appel, K. 2014. Management of human-crocodile conflict in the Northern Territory, Australia: review of crocodile attacks and removal of problem crocodiles. Journal of Wildlife Management 78:1239-1249.  External resource

 

García-Grajales, J., and A. Buenrostro-Silva. 2019. Assessment of human–crocodile conflict in Mexico: patterns, trends and hotspots areas. Marine and Freshwater Research 70:708-720.  External resource

 

González-Desales, G. A., L. Sigler, J. García-Grajales, P. Charruau, M. M. Zarco-González, Á. Balbuena-Serrano, and O. Monroy-Vilchis. 2021. Factors influencing the occurrence of negative interactions between people and crocodilians in Mexico. Oryx:1-9.  Download

King, R., and R. Elsey. 2014. Louisiana’s nuisance alligator program. Pages 163-181 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

Kpera, G. N., N. Aarts, R. C. Tossou, G. A. Mensah, A. Saidou, D. K. Kossou, A. B. Sinsin, and A. J. van der Zijpp. 2014. A pond with crocodiles never dries up': a frame analysis of human-crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12:316-333.  External resource

 

Langley, R. L. 2010. Adverse encounters with alligators in the United States: an update. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 21:156-163.  External resource

 

Maheritafika, H. M. R., E. Robsomanitrandrasana, S. Rabesihanaka, F. Rafenomanana, A. Ravaoarimalala, L. Andrianjaratina, C. Manolis, and C. Lippai. 2016. Preliminary assessment of human-crocodile conflict in Madagascar. Newsletter of the Crocodile Specialist Group 35:19-21.  External resource

 

Manolis, S. C., and G. Webb. 2013. Assessment of saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) attacks in Australia (1971–2013): implications for management. Pages 97-104 in World Crocodile Conference. Proceedings of the 22nd Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.  Download

 

Manolis, S. C., and G. Webb. 2014. Human-crocodile conflict in the Australia and Oceania Region. Pages 200-208 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

McGregor, J. 2005. Crocodile crimes: people versus wildlife and the politics of postcolonial conservation on Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Geoforum 36:353-369.  External resource

 

Pagoda, L. R. 2017. Crocodile human encounter patterns in Sri Lanka. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 32:S117-S117.  External resource

 

Patel, D., A. Vasava, K. Patel, V. Mistry, M. Patel, and R. Vyas. 2014. Attitudes, perceptions and knowledge of the local people regarding crocodiles and their conservation in Charotar Region, Gujarat, India. Pages 336-347 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

Ponce-Campos, P. 2014. Human-crocodile conflict with Crocodylus acutus in Mexico, with comments on Crocodylus moreletii and Caiman crocodilus. Pages 246-255 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

Pooley, S. 2015. Using predator attack data to save lives, human and crocodilian. Oryx 49:581-583.  Download

 

Pooley, S. 2016. A cultural herpetology of nile crocodiles in Africa. Conservation and Society 14:391  Download

 

Pooley, S. 2016. The entangled relations of humans and Nile crocodiles in Africa, c.1840-1992. Environment and History 22:421-454.  External resource

 

Pooley, S., H. Botha, X. Combrink, and G. Powell. 2019. Synthesizing Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus attack data and historical context to inform mitigation efforts in South Africa and eSwatini (Swaziland). Oryx (early view).  External resource

 

Pooley, S., P. A. Siroski, L. Fernandez, B. Sideleau, and P. Ponce-Campos. 2021. Human–crocodilian interactions in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e351.  Download

 

Powell, G., T. M. M. Versluys, J. J. Williams, S. Tiedt, and S. Pooley. 2020. Using environmental niche modelling to investigate abiotic predictors of crocodilian attacks on people. Oryx:1-9.  External resource

 

Sandoval-Hernández, I., A. Duran-Apuy, and J. Quirós-Valerio. 2017. Activities that may influence the risk of crocodile (Crocodylus acutus: Reptilia: Crocodilidae) attack to humans in the Tempisque River area, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. UNICIENCIA 31:13-22.  Download

 

Shaney, K. J., A. Hamidy, M. Walsh, E. Arida, A. Arimbi, and E. N. Smith. 2017. Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the contemporary biogeography of threatened crocodilians in Indonesia. Oryx:1-12.  External resource

 

Sideleau, B. M., and A. R. C. Britton. 2014. An analysis of recent crocodile attacks in the Republic of Indonesia - a case study on the utility of the CrocBITE database. Pages 332-335 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

Sideleau, B. M., K. S. Edyvane, and A. R. C. Britton. 2016. An analysis of recent saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) attacks in Timor-Leste and consequences for management and conservation. Marine and Freshwater Research 68:801-809.  External resource

 

Stevenson, C., A. de SIlva, R. Vyas, T. Nair, A. Mobaraki, and A. A. Chaudhry. 2014. Human-crocodile conflict in South Asia and Iran. Pages 209-226 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

Tisen, O. B., R. Bin Ahmad, F. Gombek, and E. Lading. 2014. A roadmap for crocodile conservation in Sarawak. Pages 227-235 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

van der Ploeg, J., R. R. Araño, and M. van Weerd. 2011. What local people think about crocodiles: challenging environmental policy narratives in the Philippines. The Journal of Environment & Development 20:303-328.  External resource

 

van der Ploeg, J., M. van Weerd, and G. A. Persoon. 2011. A cultural history of crocodiles in the Philippines: towards a new peace pact? Environment and History 17:229-264.  External resource

 

van der Ploeg, J., F. Ratu, J. Viravira, M. Brien, C. Wood, M. Zama, C. Gomese, and J. Hurutarau. 2019. Human-crocodile conflict in Solomon Islands. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia.  Download

 

Vasava, A., D. Patel, R. Vyas, V. Mistry, and M. Patel. 2015. Crocs of Charotar: status, distribution and conservation of Mugger crocodiles in Charotar region, Gujarat, India. Voluntary Nature Conservancy, Vallabh Vidyanagar, India.  Download

 

Vyas, R., and C. Stevenson. 2017. Review and analysis of human and mugger crocodile conflict in Gujarat, India from 1960 to 2013. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9:11016-11024.  Download

 

Wallace, K. M., A. J. Leslie, and T. Coulson. 2011. Living with predators: a focus on the issues of human-crocodile conflict within the lower Zambezi valley. Wildlife Research 38:747-755.  External resource

 

Woodward, A., E. H. Leone, H. J. Dutton, L. Hord, and J. E. Waller. 2014. Human alligator conflict in Florida, USA. Pages 182-199 in Proceedings of the 23rd Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK.  Download

 

Woodward, A. R., E. H. Leone, H. J. Dutton, J. E. Waller, and L. Hord. 2019. Characteristics of American alligator bites on people in florida. The Journal of Wildlife Management 83:1437-1453.  External resource

Books and book chapters

Grigg, G., and D. Kirshner. 2015. Biology and evolution of crocodylians. Chapter 14: Conservation, commercialisation, and conflict. CSIRO Publishing.  External resource

 

Pooley, A. C., T. Hines, and J. Shield. 1989. Attacks on humans. Pages 172-187 in C. A. Ross and S. Garnett, editors. Crocodiles and alligators. Golden Press Pty. Ltd, Silverwater, NSW, Australia.  External resource

Links