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Conflict analysis & theory


Guidance Documents

Conflict assessment framework version 2.0 (2012). (USAID)  External resource

Key Papers

Ainsworth, G. B., S. M. Redpath, M. Wilson, C. Wernham, and J. C. Young. 2020. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to address conservation conflicts: towards a practical framework based on lessons learned from a Scottish case study. Environmental Science & Policy 107:46-55.  External resource


Anderson, M. B., L. Olson, and K. Doughty. 2003. Confronting war: critical lessons for peace practitioners. Collaborative for Development Action, Incorporated.  External resource


Burton, J. 1990. Conflict: basic human needs. International Journal of Peace Studies 6.  External resource

Catapani, M. L., C. Morsello, B. Oliveira, and A. L. J. Desbiez. 2021. Using a conflict framework analysis to help beekeepers and giant armadillos (Priodontes maximus) coexist. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Cusack, J. J., T. Bradfer-Lawrence, Z. Baynham-Herd, S. Castelló y Tickell, I. Duporge, H. Hegre, L. Moreno Zárate, V. Naude, S. Nijhawan, J. Wilson, D. G. Zambrano Cortes, and N. Bunnefeld. 2021. Measuring the intensity of conflicts in conservation. Conservation Letters n/a:e12783.  Download


Deutsch, M. 1973. The resolution of conflict: constructive and destructive processes. Yale University Press.  External resource


Dickman, A. J. 2010. Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human-wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation 13:458-466.  External resource


Doucey, M. 2011. Understanding the root cases of conflicts: why it matters for international crisis. International Affairs Review XX.  External resource


Dukes, F. 1999. Why conflict transformation matters: three cases. Peace and Conflict Studies 6:53-72.  External resource


Ehrhart, S., O. Soliku, and U. Schraml. 2021. Conservation conflicts in the context of protected areas in Ghana and Germany: commonalities, differences and lessons for conflict analysis and management. GeoJournal.  External resource

Fraser-Celin, V.-L., A. J. Hovorka, and J. J. Silver. 2018. Human conflict over wildlife: exploring social constructions of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Botswana. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-18.  External resource


Hendrick, D. 2009. Complexity theory and conflict transformation: an exploration of potential and implications. Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, Working Paper 17, June 2009, University of Bradford.  Download


Hicks, T. 2001. Another look at identity‐based conflict: the roots of conflict in the psychology of consciousness. Negotiation Journal 17:35-45.  External resource


Hodgson, I. D., A. Fischer, S. M. Redpath, and J. C. Young. 2022. Fight or flight? Understanding different stakeholder responses to conservation conflicts. Society & Natural Resources:1-18.  Download

Hodgson, I. D., S. M. Redpath, A. Fischer, and J. Young. 2018. Fighting talk: organisational discourses of the conflict over raptors and grouse moor management in Scotland. Land Use Policy 77:332-343.  External resource


Hodgson, I. D., S. M. Redpath, A. Fischer, and J. Young. 2019. Who knows best? Understanding the use of research-based knowledge in conservation conflicts. Journal of Environmental Management 231:1065-1075.  External resource


Hoel, K., A. Chin, and J. Lau. 2022. Clashing conservation values: the social complexities of shark depredation. Biological Conservation 272:109658.  External resource

Innes, J. E., and D. E. Booher. 1999. Consensus building and complex adaptive systems. Journal of the American Planning Association 65:412-423.  External resource


Lecuyer, L., S. Calmé, B. Schmook, and R. M. White. 2022. Conservation conflict hotspots: mapping impacts, risk perception and tolerance for sustainable conservation management. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Lederach, J. P., H. Culbertson, and R. Neufeldt. 2007. Reflective peacebuilding: a planning, monitoring and learning toolkit. Joan B. Kroc Inst. for International Peace Studies.  External resource


Madden, F. 2004. Creating coexistence between humans and wildlife: global perspectives on local efforts to address human–wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9:247-257.  External resource


Madden, F., and B. McQuinn. 2014. Conservation's blind spot: the case for conflict transformation in wildlife conservation. Biological Conservation 178:97-106.  Download  


Redpath, S. A., B. E. Arroyo, E. M. Leckie, P. Bacon, N. Bayfield, R. J. Gutierrez, and S. J. Thirgood. 2004. Using decision modeling with stakeholders to reduce human-wildlife conflict: a raptor-grouse case study. Conservation Biology 18:350-359.  External resource


Redpath, S. M., J. Young, A. Evely, W. M. Adams, W. J. Sutherland, A. Whitehouse, A. Amar, R. A. Lambert, J. D. C. Linnell, A. Watt, and R. J. Gutierrez. 2013. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28:100-109.  External resource


Salvatori, V., E. Balian, J. C. Blanco, P. Ciucci, L. Demeter, T. Hartel, K. Marsden, S. M. Redpath, Y. von Korff, and J. C. Young. 2020. Applying participatory processes to address conflicts over the conservation of large carnivores: understanding conditions for successful management. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8.  External resource

Sandroni, L. T., K. M. P. M. de Barros Ferraz, S. Marchini, A. Percequillo, R. Coates, R. M. Paolino, Y. Barros, M. Landis, Y. G. G. Ribeiro, and L. P. Munhoes. 2022. Stakeholder mapping as a transdisciplinary exercise for jaguar conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e12651.  Download

Young, J. C., K. Searle, A. Butler, P. Simmons, A. D. Watt, and A. Jordan. 2016. The role of trust in the resolution of conservation conflicts. Biological Conservation 195:196-202.  External resource

Young, J. C., D. B. A. Thompson, P. Moore, A. MacGugan, A. Watt, and S. M. Redpath. 2016. A conflict management tool for conservation agencies. Journal of Applied Ecology 53:705-711.  External resource


Young, J. C., J. R. Young, and B. A. Aubert. 2022. Insights from diplomacy for the prevention and resolution of conservation conflicts. Conservation Letters:e12891.  Download


Zimmermann, A., B. McQuinn, and D. W. Macdonald. 2020. Levels of conflict over wildlife: understanding and addressing the right problem. Conservation Science and Practice:e259.  Download

Books and book chapters

Deutsch, M., and P. T. Coleman. 2015. Psychological components of sustainable peace: an introduction. Pages 105-117 Morton Deutsch: Major texts on peace psychology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.  External resource


Hodgson, I. D., J. Cusack, I. Jones, J. Minderman, L. Nilsson, R. A. Pozo, O. S. Rakotonarivo, and N. Bunnefeld. 2021. Building peace to save nature: multi-disciplinary approaches to managing conflicts in conservation. Pages 3-22 in S. C. Underkoffler and H. R. Adams, editors. Wildlife biodiversity conservation: multidisciplinary and forensic approaches. Springer International Publishing, Cham.  External resource

Jeong, H.-W. 2008. Understanding conflict and conflict analysis. Sage.  External resource


Lederach, J. 2015. Little book of conflict transformation: clear articulation of the guiding principles by a pioneer in the field. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.  External resource


Lederach, J. P. 1997. Building peace: sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. United States Institute of Peace, Washington, DC.  External resource


Levinger, M., and M. B. Levinger. 2013. Conflict analysis: understanding causes, unlocking solutions. United States Institute of Peace.  External resource


Madden, F., and B. McQuinn. 2015. Conservation conflict transformation: the missing link in S. Redpath, R. J. Gutierrez, K. A. Wood, and J. C. Young, editors. Conflicts in conservation: navigating towards solutions. Cambridge University Press, UK.  External resource


Madden, F., and B. McQuinn. 2017. Conservation conflict transformation: addressing the missing link in wildlife C. M. Hill, A. D. Webber, and N. E. C. Priston, editors. Understanding conflicts about wildlife: a biosocial approach. Berghahn Books, New York  External resource


Miall, H. 2004. Conflict transformation: a multi-dimensional task. Pages 67-89 in A. Austin, M. Fischer, and N. Ropers, editors. Transforming ethnopolitical conflict: the berghof handbook. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden.  Download


Rosati, J. A., D. J. Carroll, and R. A. Coate. 1990. A critical assessment of the power of human needs in world society. Pages 156-179 in J. Burton and F. Dukes, editors. Conflict: readings in management and resolution. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.  External resource


Rothman, J. 1997. Resolving identity-based conflict in nations, organizations, and communities.  External resource


Satterfield, T. 2007. Anatomy of a conflict: identity, knowledge, and emotion in old-growth forests. UBC Press.  External resource

Sites, P. 1990. Needs as analogues of emotions. Pages 7-33 in J. Burton, editor. Conflict: human needs theory. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.  External resource

Walker, G., and S. Daniels. 1997. Foundations of natural resource conflict: conflict theory and public policy. Pages 13-36 in Conflict management and public participation in land management. EFI Proceedings.  External resource

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