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African elephant

African elephant

Guidance Documents

Safety Around Elephants - field guide (2019). (Ecoexist)

Setswana Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

         English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Protecting Your Field - field guide (2019). (Ecoexist) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Beehive fence construction manual: a step by step guide to building a protective beehive fence to deter crop-raiding elephants from farm land (2014). (King, L.E.) External resource

A decision support system for managing human-elephant conflict in Africa (2001). (AfESG)

English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          French Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          Portuguese Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

A training course for community based approaches in Africa (2007). (AfESG)

Trainers Manual 

English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          French Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Participant's Manual 

English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          French Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Data collection and analysis protocol for human-elephant conflict situations in Africa. (AfESG)

English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          French Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          Portuguese Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Training package for enumerators of elephant damage. (AfESG)

English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          French Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

          Portuguese Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Key Papers

Adams, T. S. F., M. J. Chase, T. L. Rogers, and K. E. A. Leggett. 2017. Taking the elephant out of the room and into the corridor: can urban corridors work? Oryx 51:347-353. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Adams, T. S. F., I. Mwezi, and N. R. Jordan. 2020. Panic at the disco: solar-powered strobe light barriers reduce field incursion by African elephants Loxodonta africana in Chobe District, Botswana. Oryx:1-8. External resource

Barnes, R. F. W. 1996. The conflict between humans and elephants in the central African forests. Mammal Review 26:67-80. External resource

Branco, P. S., J. A. Merkle, R. M. Pringle, J. Pansu, A. B. Potter, A. Reynolds, M. Stalmans, and R. A. Long. 2019. Determinants of elephant foraging behavior in a coupled human-natural system: is brown the new green? Journal of Animal Ecology External resource

Buchholtz, E. K., L. Redmore, L. A. Fitzgerald, A. Stronza, A. Songhurst, and G. McCulloch. 2019. Temporal partitioning and overlapping use of a shared natural resource by people and elephants. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Chiyo, P. I., and E. P. Cochrane. 2005. Population structure and behaviour of crop-raiding elephants in Kibale National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 43:233-241. External resource

Chiyo, P. I., E. P. Cochrane, L. Naughton, and G. I. Basuta. 2005. Temporal patterns of crop raiding by elephants: a response to changes in forage quality or crop availability? African Journal of Ecology 43:48-55. External resource

Chiyo, P. I., P. C. Lee, C. J. Moss, E. A. Archie, J. A. Hollister-Smith, and S. C. Alberts. 2011. No risk, no gain: effects of crop raiding and genetic diversity on body size in male elephants. Behavioral Ecology 22:552-558. External resource

Chiyo, P. I., C. J. Moss, and S. C. Alberts. 2012. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants. Plos One 7:11. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Chiyo, P. I., C. J. Moss, E. A. Archie, J. A. Hollister-Smith, and S. C. Alberts. 2011. Using molecular and observational techniques to estimate the number and raiding patterns of crop-raiding elephants. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:788-796. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Denninger Snyder, K., and D. Rentsch. 2020. Rethinking assessment of success of mitigation strategies for elephant-induced crop damage. Conservation Biology External resource

Durant, S. M., M. S. Becker, S. Creel, S. Bashir, A. J. Dickman, R. C. Beudels-Jamar, L. Lichtenfeld, R. Hilborn, J. Wall, G. Wittemyer, L. Badamjav, S. Blake, L. Boitani, C. Breitenmoser, F. Broekhuis, D. Christianson, G. Cozzi, T. R. B. Davenport, J. Deutsch, P. Devillers, L. Dollar, S. Dolrenry, I. Douglas-Hamilton, E. Droge, E. FitzHerbert, C. Foley, L. Hazzah, J. G. C. Hopcraft, D. Ikanda, A. Jacobson, D. Joubert, M. J. Kelly, J. Milanzi, N. Mitchell, J. M'Soka, M. Msuha, T. Mweetwa, J. Nyahongo, E. Rosenblatt, P. Schuette, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A. R. E. Sinclair, M. R. Price, A. Zimmermann, and N. Pettorelli. 2015. Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:544-551. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gadd, M. E. 2005. Conservation outside of parks: attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environmental Conservation 32:50-63. External resource

Graham, M. D., W. M. Adams, and G. N. Kahiro. 2012. Mobile phone communication in effective human-elephant conflict management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Oryx 46:137-144. External resource

Graham, M. D., I. Douglas-Hamilton, W. M. Adams, and P. C. Lee. 2009. The movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaic. Animal Conservation 12:445-455. External resource

Graham, M. D., B. Notter, W. M. Adams, P. C. Lee, and T. N. Ochieng. 2010. Patterns of crop-raiding by elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Laikipia, Kenya, and the management of human-elephant conflict. Systematics and Biodiversity 8:435-445. External resource

Graham, M. D., and T. Ochieng. 2008. Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42:76-82. External resource

Gross, E. M., B. P. Lahkar, N. Subedi, V. R. Nyirenda, L. L. Lichtenfeld, and O. Jakoby. 2018. Seasonality, crop type and crop phenology influence crop damage by wildlife herbivores in Africa and Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation. External resource

Gross, E. M., R. McRobb, and J. Gross. 2016. Cultivating alternative crops reduces crop losses due to African elephants. Journal of Pest Science 89:497-506. External resource

Guerbois, C., E. Chapanda, and H. Fritz. 2012. Combining multi-scale socio-ecological approaches to understand the susceptibility of subsistence farmers to elephant crop raiding on the edge of a protected area. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:1149-1158. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gunn, J., D. Hawkins, R. F. W. Barnes, F. Mofulu, R. A. Grant, and G. W. Norton. 2014. The influence of lunar cycles on crop-raiding elephants; evidence for risk avoidance. African Journal of Ecology 52:129-137. External resource

Hill, C. M. 1998. Conflicting attitudes towards elephants around the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Environmental Conservation 25:244-250. External resource

Hoare, R. 2000. African elephants and humans in conflict: the outlook for co-existence. Oryx 34:34-38. External resource

Hoare, R. 2012. Lessons from 15 years of human-elephant conflict mitigation: management considerations involving biological, physical and governance issues in Africa. Pachyderm:60-74. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Hoare, R. E. 2015. Lessons from 20 years of human–elephant conflict mitigation in Africa. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 20:289-295. External resource

Hoare, R. E. 1999. Determinants of human-elephant conflict in a land-use mosaic. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:689-700. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Hoare, R. E., and J. T. Du Toit. 1999. Coexistence between people and elephants in African savannas. Conservation Biology 13:633-639. External resource

Jackson, T. R., S. Mosojane, S. M. Ferreira, and R. J. van Aarde. 2008. Solutions for elephant Loxodonta africana crop raiding in northern Botswana: moving away from symptomatic approaches. Oryx 42:83-91. External resource

King, L. E., I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2011. Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49:431-439. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

King, L. E., A. Lawrence, I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2009. Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology 47:131-137. External resource

Mackenzie, C. A., and P. Ahabyona. 2012. Elephants in the garden: financial and social costs of crop raiding. Ecological Economics 75:72-82. External resource

Mutinda, M., G. Chenge, F. Gakuya, M. Otiende, P. Omondi, S. Kasiki, R. C. Soriguer, and S. Alasaad. 2014. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation. Plos One 9:7. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Naughton-Treves, L. 1998. Predicting patterns of crop damage by wildlife around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conservation Biology 12:156-168. External resource

Naughton, L., R. Rose, and A. Treves. 1999. The social dimensions of human-elephant conflict in Africa: a literature review and case studies from Uganda and Cameroon. A Report to the African Elephant Specialist, Human-Elephant Conflict Task Force, of IUCN. Glands, Switzerland. External resource

Ngama, S., J. Bindelle, J. R. Poulsen, J.-L. Hornick, A. Linden, L. Korte, J.-L. Doucet, and C. Vermeulen. 2019. Do topography and fruit presence influence occurrence and intensity of crop-raiding by forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis)? Plos One 14:e0213971. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Nsonsi, F., J. C. Heymans, J. Diamouangana, F. B. Mavinga, and T. Breuer. 2018. Perceived human–elephant conflict and its impact for elephant conservation in northern Congo. African Journal of Ecology. External resource

O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E., T. Rodwell, M. Rice, and L. A. Hart. 2000. Living with the modern conservation paradigm: can agricultural communities co-exist with elephants? A five-year case study in East Caprivi, Namibia. Biological Conservation 93:381-391. External resource

Osborn, F. V. 2002. Capsicum oleoresin as an elephant repellent: field trials in the communal lands of Zimbabwe. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:674-677. External resource

Osborn, F. V. 2004. Seasonal variation of feeding patterns and food selection by crop-raiding elephants in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 42:322-327. External resource

Osborn, F. V., and G. E. Parker. 2003. Towards an integrated approach for reducing the conflict between elephants and people: a review of current research. Oryx 37:80-84. External resource

Osipova, L., M. M. Okello, S. J. Njumbi, S. Ngene, D. Western, M. W. Hayward, and N. Balkenhol. 2018. Fencing solves human-wildlife conflict locally but shifts problems elsewhere: a case study using functional connectivity modelling of the African elephant. Journal of Applied Ecology. External resource

Parker, G. E., and F. V. Osborn. 2006. Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum spp. to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx 40:343-346. External resource

Pittiglio, C., A. K. Skidmore, H. van Gils, M. K. McCall, and H. H. T. Prins. 2014. Smallholder farms as stepping stone corridors for crop-raiding elephant in Northern Tanzania: integration of Bayesian expert system and network simulator. Ambio 43:149-161. External resource

Pozo, R. A., T. Coulson, G. McCulloch, A. Stronza, and A. Songhurst. 2017. Chilli-briquettes modify the temporal behaviour of elephants, but not their numbers. Oryx:1-9. External resource

Pozo, R. A., J. J. Cusack, G. McCulloch, A. Stronza, A. Songhurst, and T. Coulson. 2018. Elephant space-use is not a good predictor of crop-damage. Biological Conservation 228:241-251. External resource

Shaffer, L. J., K. K. Khadka, J. Van Den Hoek, and K. J. Naithani. 2019. Human-elephant conflict: a review of current management strategies and future directions. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6. External resource

Sitati, N. W., and M. J. Walpole. 2006. Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human-elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx 40:279-286. External resource

Sitati, N. W., M. J. Walpole, and N. Leader-Williams. 2005. Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:1175-1182. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Sitati, N. W., M. J. Walpole, R. J. Smith, and N. Leader-Williams. 2003. Predicting spatial aspects of human-elephant conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology 40:667-677. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Sitienei, A. J., G. Jiwen, and S. M. Ngene. 2014. Assessing the cost of living with elephants (Loxodonta africana) in areas adjacent to Meru National Park, Kenya. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60:323-330. External resource

Songhurst, A., and T. Coulson. 2014. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding. Ecology and Evolution 4:582-593. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Songhurst, A., G. McClloch, and T. Coulson. 2016. Finding pathways to human-elephant coexistence: a risky business. Oryx 50:713-720. External resource

Tchamba, M. N. 1996. History and present status of the human elephant conflict in the Waza-Logone Region, Cameroon, west Africa. Biological Conservation 75:35-41. External resource

Thouless, C. R. 1994. Conflict between humans and elephants on private land in northern Kenya. Oryx 28:119-127. External resource

Von Gerhardt, K., A. Van Niekerk, M. Kidd, M. Samways, and J. Hanks. 2014. The role of elephant Loxodonta africana pathways as a spatial variable in crop-raiding location. Oryx 48:436-444. External resource

Books and Book Chapters

Knickerbocker, T. J., and J. Waithaka. 2005. People and elephants in the Shimba Hills, Kenya. Pages 224-238 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. External resource

Naughton-Treves, L., J. L'Roe, A. L'Roe, and A. Treves. 2017. A long term comparison of local perceptions of crop loss to wildlife at Kibale National Park, Uganda: exploring consistency across individuals and C. M. Hill, A. D. Webber, and N. E. C. Priston, editors. Understanding conflicts about wildlife: a biosocial approach. Berghahn Books, New York. External resource

Naughton-Treves, L., and A. Treves. 2005. Socio-ecological factors shaping local support for wildlife: crop-raiding by elephants and other wildlife in Africa. Pages 252-277 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. External resource

Osborn, F. V., and C. M. Hill. 2005. Techniques to reduce crop loss: human and technical dimensions in Africa. Pages 72-85 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. External resource


IUCN SSC African Elephant Specialist Group