Guidance Documents

A guidebook to human-carnivore conflict: strategies and tips for effective communication and collaboration with communities (2016). (Wilson, S.M.)  External resource


Livestock and wolves: a guide to nonlethal tools and methods to reduce conflicts (2016). (Defenders of Wildlife)  External resource


Livestock guarding dogs - cultural heritage icons with a new relevance for mitigating conservation conflicts (2015). (Linnell, J.D.C. and Lescureux, N.)  External resource


Exploring traditional husbandry methods to reduce wolf predation on free-ranging cattle in Portugal and Spain. Final report (2014). (European Commission)

Portuguese  Download     Spanish  Download     English  Download


Practical electric fencing resource guide: controlling predators (2009). (Living with Wildlife Foundation)  External resource

Manual prevenção de prejuízos por predadores no gado. (Grupo Lobo)  Download

Key Papers

Anderson, R. M. 2021. Killing for the common good? The (bio)politics of wolf management in Washington State. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 9.  External resource

Arbieu, U., G. Chapron, C. Astaras, N. Bunnefeld, S. Harkins, Y. Iliopoulos, M. Mehring, I. Reinhardt, and T. Mueller. 2021. News selection and framing: the media as a stakeholder in human-carnivore coexistence. Environmental Research Letters.  Download

Arbieu, U., K. Helsper, M. Dadvar, T. Mueller, and A. Niamir. 2021. Natural Language Processing as a tool to evaluate emotions in conservation conflicts. Biological Conservation 256:109030.  External resource

Arbieu, U., M. Mehring, N. Bunnefeld, P. Kaczensky, I. Reinhardt, H. Ansorge, K. Böhning-Gaese, J. A. Glikman, G. Kluth, C. Nowak, and T. Müller. 2019. Attitudes towards returning wolves (Canis lupus) in Germany: exposure, information sources and trust matter. Biological Conservation 234:202-210.  External resource


Bangs, E. E., and J. Shivik. 2001. Managing wolf conflicts with livestock in the Northwest United States. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 3:2-5.  Download


Behdarvand, N., M. Kaboli, M. Ahmadi, E. Nourani, A. S. Mahini, and M. A. Aghbolaghi. 2014. Spatial risk model and mitigation implications for wolf-human conflict in a highly modified agroecosystem in western Iran. Biological Conservation 177:156-164.  External resource


Behr, D. M., A. Ozgul, and G. Cozzi. 2017. Combining human acceptance and habitat suitability in a unified socio-ecological suitability model: a case study of the wolf in Switzerland. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:1919-1929.  External resource


Boitani, L., P. Ciucci, and E. Raganella-Pelliccioni. 2010. Ex-post compensation payments for wolf predation on livestock in Italy: a tool for conservation? Wildlife Research 37:722-730.  External resource


Boronyak, L., B. Jacobs, A. Wallach, J. McManus, S. Stone, S. Stevenson, B. Smuts, and H. Zaranek. 2021. Pathways towards coexistence with large carnivores in production systems. Agriculture and Human Values.  External resource

Bradley, E. H., and D. H. Pletscher. 2005. Assessing factors related to wolf depredation of cattle in fenced pastures in Montana and Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1256-1265.  External resource


Bradley, E. H., D. H. Pletscher, E. E. Bangs, K. E. Kunkel, D. W. Smith, C. M. Mack, T. J. Meier, J. A. Fontaine, C. C. Niemeyer, and M. D. Jimenez. 2005. Evaluating wolf translocation as a nonlethal method to reduce livestock conflicts in the northwestern United States. Conservation Biology 19:1498-1508.  External resource


Browne-Nunez, C., A. Treves, D. MacFarland, Z. Voyles, and C. Turng. 2015. Tolerance of wolves in Wisconsin: a mixed-methods examination of policy effects on attitudes and behavioral inclinations. Biological Conservation 189:59-71.  External resource


Bump, J. K., C. M. Murawski, L. M. Kartano, D. E. Beyer, and B. J. Roell. 2013. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict. Plos One 8:7.  Download


Carter, N. H., P. Nelson, and T. Easter. 2021. A call for a national collaborative predator coexistence programme. People and Nature.  Download

Chapron, G., P. Kaczensky, J. D. C. Linnell, M. von Arx, D. Huber, H. Andren, J. V. Lopez-Bao, M. Adamec, F. Alvares, O. Anders, L. Balciauskas, V. Balys, P. Bedo, F. Bego, J. C. Blanco, U. Breitenmoser, H. Broseth, L. Bufka, R. Bunikyte, P. Ciucci, A. Dutsov, T. Engleder, C. Fuxjager, C. Groff, K. Holmala, B. Hoxha, Y. Iliopoulos, O. Ionescu, J. Jeremic, K. Jerina, G. Kluth, F. Knauer, I. Kojola, I. Kos, M. Krofel, J. Kubala, S. Kunovac, J. Kusak, M. Kutal, O. Liberg, A. Majic, P. Mannil, R. Manz, E. Marboutin, F. Marucco, D. Melovski, K. Mersini, Y. Mertzanis, R. W. Myslajek, S. Nowak, J. Odden, J. Ozolins, G. Palomero, M. Paunovic, J. Persson, H. Potocnik, P. Y. Quenette, G. Rauer, I. Reinhardt, R. Rigg, A. Ryser, V. Salvatori, T. Skrbinsek, A. Stojanov, J. E. Swenson, L. Szemethy, A. Trajce, E. Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, M. Vana, R. Veeroja, P. Wabakken, M. Wofl, S. Wolfl, F. Zimmermann, D. Zlatanova, and L. Boitani. 2014. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346:1517-1519.  External resource  


Chen, P. J., Y. F. Gao, A. T. L. Lee, L. Cering, K. Shi, and S. G. Clark. 2016. Human-carnivore coexistence in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Nature Reserve, China: patterns and compensation. Biological Conservation 197:18-26.  External resource


Cinque, S., A. Sjölander-Lindqvist, and C. Sandström. 2021. Frontline bureaucrats in wildlife management: caught in the dilemma between effectiveness and responsiveness. Environmental Policy and Governance.  Download

Dalerum, F. 2021. Socioeconomic characteristics of suitable wolf habitat in Sweden. Ambio 50:1259–1268.  External resource

Dietsch, A. M., T. L. Teel, and M. J. Manfredo. 2016. Social values and biodiversity conservation in a dynamic world. Conservation Biology 30:1212-1221.  External resource


Ericsson, G., and T. A. Heberlein. 2003. Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Biological Conservation 111:149-159.  External resource


Eriksson, M., C. Sandström, and G. Ericsson. 2015. Direct experience and attitude change towards bears and wolves. Wildlife Biology 21:131-137.  Download


Fernandez-Gil, A., J. Naves, A. Ordiz, M. Quevedo, E. Revilla, and M. Delibes. 2016. Conflict misleads large carnivore management and conservation: brown bears and wolves in Spain. Plos One 11:13.  Download


Fonturbel, F. E., and J. A. Simonetti. 2011. Translocations and human-carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17:217-224.  Download


Frank, J., and A. Eklund. 2017. Poor construction, not time, takes its toll on subsidised fences designed to deter large carnivores. Plos One 12:e0175211.  Download


Frank, J., Johansson, M. and Flykt, A. 2015. Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves. Wildlife Biology 21:122-130.  Download


Gehring, T. M., K. C. VerCauteren, M. L. Provost, and A. C. Cellar. 2010. Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms. Wildlife Research 37:715-721.  External resource


Glikman, J. A., A. J. Bath, and J. J. Vaske. 2010. Segmenting normative beliefs regarding wolf management in central Italy. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 15:347-358.  External resource


Glikman, J. A., J. J. Vaske, A. J. Bath, P. Ciucci, and L. Boitani. 2012. Residents' support for wolf and bear conservation: the moderating influence of knowledge. European Journal of Wildlife Research 58:295-302.  External resource


Goljani Amirkhiz, R., J. K. Frey, J. W. Cain, S. W. Breck, and D. L. Bergman. 2018. Predicting spatial factors associated with cattle depredations by the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) with recommendations for depredation risk modeling. Biological Conservation 224:327-335.  External resource


Jacobsen, K. S., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2016. Perceptions of environmental justice and the conflict surrounding large carnivore management in Norway - implications for conflict management. Biological Conservation 203:197-206.  External resource


Johansson, M., I. A. Ferreira, O. G. Stoen, J. Frank, and A. Flykt. 2016. Targeting human fear of large carnivores - many ideas but few known effects. Biological Conservation 201:261-269.  External resource


Jürgens, U. M., and P. M. W. Hackett. 2017. The big bad wolf: the formation of a stereotype. Ecopsychology 9:33-43.  External resource


Karlsson, J., and M. Sjostrom. 2007. Human attitudes towards wolves, a matter of distance. Biological Conservation 137:610-616.  External resource


Karlsson, J., and M. Sjostrom. 2008. Direct use values and passive use values: implications for conservation of large carnivores. Biodiversity and Conservation 17:883-891.  External resource


Karlsson, J., and M. Sjöström. 2011. Subsidized fencing of livestock as a means of increasing tolerance for wolves. Ecology and Society 16.  Download


Lance, N. J., S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik. 2010. Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus). Wildlife Research 37:708-714.  External resource


Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2010. Knowledge and perceptions of Macedonian hunters and herders: the influence of species specific ecology of bears, wolves, and lynx. Human Ecology 38:389-399.  External resource


Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2014. Warring brothers: the complex interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) in a conservation context. Biological Conservation 171:232-245.  External resource


Li, C. L., Z. G. Jiang, C. W. Li, S. H. Tang, F. Li, Z. H. Luo, X. G. Ping, Z. Liu, J. Chen, and H. X. Fang. 2015. Livestock depredations and attitudes of local pastoralists toward carnivores in the Qinghai Lake Region, China. Wildlife Biology 21:204-212.  Download


Li, X. Y., P. Buzzard, Y. C. Chen, and X. L. Jiang. 2013. Patterns of livestock predation by carnivores: human-wildlife conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China. Environmental Management 52:1334-1340.  External resource


Lin, H., P. Żebrowski, B. D. Fath, H. Liljenström, and E. Rovenskaya. 2021. Modelling stakeholder satisfaction for conflict resolution in wildlife management: a case of wolf population in Sweden. European Journal of Wildlife Research 67:61.  Download

Linnell, J. D. C. 2013. From conflict to coexistence: insights from multi-disciplinary research into the relationships between people, large carnivores and institutions. Istituto di Ecologia Applicata, Rome.  Download


Linnell, J. D. C., R. Aanes, J. E. Swenson, J. Odden, and M. E. Smith. 1997. Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation 6:1245-1257.  External resource


Linnell, J. D. C., J. Odden, M. E. Smith, R. Aanes, and J. E. Swenson. 1999. Large carnivores that kill livestock: do "problem individuals" really exist? Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:698-705.  Download


Linnell, J. D. C., J. E. Swenson, and R. Andersen. 2001. Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable. Animal Conservation 4:345-349.  Download


Mabille, G., A. Stien, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Broseth, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2015. Sheep farming and large carnivores: what are the factors influencing claimed losses? Ecosphere 6:17.  Download


Mabille, G., A. Stien, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Brøseth, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2016. Mortality and lamb body mass growth in free‐ranging domestic sheep – environmental impacts including lethal and non‐lethal impacts of predators. Ecography 39:763-773.  External resource


Manfredo, M. J., R. E. Berl, T. L. Teel, and J. T. Bruskotter. 2021. Bringing social values to wildlife conservation decisions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.  Download

Marino, A., C. Braschi, S. Ricci, V. Salvatori, and P. Ciucci. 2016. Ex post and insurance-based compensation fail to increase tolerance for wolves in semi-agricultural landscapes of central Italy. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62:227-240.  External resource


Marino, A., P. Ciucci, S. M. Redpath, S. Ricci, J. Young, and V. Salvatori. 2021. Broadening the toolset for stakeholder engagement to explore consensus over wolf management. Journal of Environmental Management 296:113125.  External resource

Mazur, K. E., and S. T. Asah. 2013. Clarifying standpoints in the gray wolf recovery conflict: procuring management and policy forethought. Biological Conservation 167:79-89.  External resource


Milheiras, S., and I. Hodge. 2011. Attitudes towards compensation for wolf damage to livestock in Viana do Castelo, North of Portugal. Innovation-the European Journal of Social Science Research 24:333-351.  External resource


Mishra, C. 1997. Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans-Himalaya: conflict perceptions and conservation prospects. Environmental Conservation 24:338-343.  External resource


Morehouse, A. T., and M. S. Boyce. 2011. From venison to beef: seasonal changes in wolf diet composition in a livestock grazing landscape. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:440-445.  Download

Muhly, T. B., and M. Musiani. 2009. Livestock depredation by wolves and the ranching economy in the Northwestern US. Ecological Economics 68:2439-2450.  External resource


Musiani, M., C. Mamo, L. Boitani, C. Callaghan, C. C. Gates, L. Mattei, E. VisalberghiI, S. Breck, and G. VolpiI. 2003. Wolf depredation trends and the use of barriers to protect livestock in western North America. Conservation Biology 17:1-10.  External resource


Naughton-Treves, L., R. Grossberg, and A. Treves. 2003. Paying for tolerance: rural citizens' attitudes toward wolf depredation and compensation. Conservation Biology 17:1500-1511.  External resource


Nie, M. A. 2001. The sociopolitical dimensions of wolf management and restoration in the United States. Human Ecology Review 8:1-12.  External resource


Nie, M. A. 2002. Wolf recovery and management as value-based political conflict. Ethics, Place & Environment 5:65-71.  External resource  


Olson, E. R., A. Treves, A. P. Wydeven, and S. J. Ventura. 2015. Landscape predictors of wolf attacks on bear-hunting dogs in Wisconsin, USA. Wildlife Research 41:584-597.  External resource


Pate, J., M. J. Manfredo, A. D. Bright, and G. Tischbein. 1996. Coloradans' attitudes toward reintroducing the gray wolf into Colorado. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:421-428.  External resource


Penteriani, V., M. D. Delgado, F. Pinchera, J. Naves, A. Fernandez-Gil, I. Kojola, S. Harkonen, H. Norberg, J. Frank, J. M. Fedriani, V. Sahlen, O. G. Stoen, J. E. Swenson, P. Wabakken, M. Pellegrini, S. Herrero, and J. V. Lopez-Bao. 2016. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries. Scientific Reports 6:8.  Download


Pimenta, V., I. Barroso, L. Boitani, and P. Beja. 2018. Risks a la carte: modelling the occurrence and intensity of wolf predation on multiple livestock species. Biological Conservation 228:331-342.  External resource


Rigg, R., S. Findo, M. Wechselberger, M. L. Gorman, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and D. W. Macdonald. 2011. Mitigating carnivore-livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45:272-280.  External resource


Rode, J., L. Flinzberger, R. Karutz, A. Berghöfer, and C. Schröter-Schlaack. 2021. Why so negative? Exploring the socio-economic impacts of large carnivores from a European perspective. Biological Conservation 255:108918.  External resource

Rondinini, C., and L. Boitani. 2007. Systematic conservation planning and the cost of tackling conservation conflicts with large carnivores in Italy. Conservation Biology 21:1455-1462.  External resource


Rosen, T., S. Hussain, G. Mohammad, R. Jackson, J. E. Janecka, and S. Michel. 2012. Reconciling sustainable development of mountain communities with large carnivore conservation lessons from Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development 32:286-293.  Download

Roskaft, E., T. Bjerke, B. Kaltenborn, J. D. C. Linnell, and R. Andersen. 2003. Patterns of self-reported fear towards large carnivores among the Norwegian public. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:184-198.  External resource

Salvatori, V., E. Balian, J. C. Blanco, X. Carbonell, P. Ciucci, L. Demeter, A. Marino, A. Panzavolta, A. Sólyom, Y. von Korff, and J. C. Young. 2021. Are large carnivores the real issue? Solutions for improving conflict management through stakeholder participation. Sustainability 13:4482.  Download

Santiago-Avila, F. J., A. M. Cornman, and A. Treves. 2018. Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors. Plos One 13:e0189729.  Download


Schroeder, S. A., A. C. Landon, D. C. Fulton, and L. E. McInenly. 2021. Social identity, values, and trust in government: How stakeholder group, ideology, and wildlife value orientations relate to trust in a state agency for wildlife management. Biological Conservation 261:109285.  External resource

Serenari, C. 2021. Conservation reliance and its influence on support for carnivore recovery. Conservation Science and Practice 3:e382.  Download

Skogen, K., and O. Krange. 2003. A wolf at the gate: the anti‐carnivore alliance and the symbolic construction of community. Sociologia Ruralis 43:309-325.  External resource  

Skogen, K., I. Mauz, and O. Krange. 2006. Wolves and eco-power. A French-Norwegian analysis of the narratives on the return of large carnivores. Revue de géographie alpine 94:78-87.  Download


Smith, D. W., and R. O. Peterson. 2021. Intended and unintended consequences of wolf restoration to Yellowstone and Isle Royale National Parks. Conservation Science and Practice 3:e413.  Download

Smith, J. B., C. K. Nielsen, and E. C. Hellgren. 2016. Suitable habitat for recolonizing large carnivores in the midwestern USA. Oryx 50:555-564.  External resource


Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation: I. Guardian animals. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:279-290.  External resource


Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation II. Aversive conditioning, deterrents and repellents. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:304-315.  External resource


Sponarski, C. C., C. Semeniuk, J. A. Glikman, A. J. Bath, and M. Musiani. 2013. Heterogeneity among rural resident attitudes toward wolves. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:239-248.  External resource


Stone, S. A., S. W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P. M. Haswell, F. Najera, B. S. Bean, and D. J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98:33-44.  Download


Suryawanshi, K. R., S. Bhatia, Y. V. Bhatnagar, S. Redpath, and C. Mishra. 2014. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves. Conservation Biology 28:1657-1666.  External resource


Suryawanshi, K. R., Y. V. Bhatnagar, S. Redpath, and C. Mishra. 2013. People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves. Journal of Applied Ecology 50:550-560.  External resource


Treves, A. 2009. Hunting for large carnivore conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:1350-1356.  External resource


Treves, A., and K. U. Karanth. 2003. Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17:1491-1499.  External resource


Treves, A., L. Naughton-Treves, E. K. Harper, D. J. Mladenoff, R. A. Rose, T. A. Sickley, and A. P. Wydeven. 2004. Predicting human-carnivore conflict: a spatial model derived from 25 years of data on wolf predation on livestock. Conservation Biology 18:114-125.  External resource


van Eeden, L. M., C. Bogezi, D. Leng, J. M. Marzluff, A. J. Wirsing, and S. Rabotyagov. 2021. Public willingness to pay for gray wolf conservation that could support a rancher-led wolf-livestock coexistence program. Biological Conservation 260:109226.  External resource

van Eeden, L. M., S. S. Rabotyagov, M. Kather, C. Bogezi, A. J. Wirsing, and J. Marzluff. 2021. Political affiliation predicts public attitudes toward gray wolf (Canis lupus) conservation and management. Conservation Science and Practice 3:e387.  Download

Wielgus, R. B., and K. A. Peebles. 2014. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations. Plos One 9:e113505.  Download


Young, J. C., S. M. Redpath, P. Ciucci, A. Marino, S. Ricci, and V. Salvatori. 2018. Introducing a decision modelling approach to addressing wolf conflicts in Italy. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 17:28-33.  Download  

Books and book chapters

Dickman, A., S. Marchini, and M. Manfredo. 2013. The human dimension in addressing conflict with large carnivores. Pages 110-126 Key topics in conservation biology 2. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.  External resource


Nie, M. A. 2003. Beyond wolves: the politics of wolf recovery and management. University of Minnesota Press, London.  External resource


Sillero-Zubiri, C., R. Sukumar, and A. Treves. 2007. Living with wildlife: the roots of conflict and the solutions. Key topics in conservation biology:266-272.  External resource


Skogen, K., O. Krange, and H. Figari. 2017. Wolf conflicts: a sociological study. Berghahn Books, Oxford.  External resource


Zimmermann, A., N. Baker, C. Inskip, J. D. C. Linnell, S. Marchini, J. Odden, G. Rasmussen, and A. Treves. 2009. Contemporary views of human–carnivore conflicts on wild rangelands. Pages 129-151 in J. T. du Toit, R. Kock, and J. C. Deutsch, editors. Wild rangelands. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.  External resource