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Snakebite envenoming: a strategy for prevention and control (2019). (World Health Organization)  Download


Guidelines for the management of snake-bites in South-East Asia (2016). (World Health Organization)  Download


A clinician's guide to Australian venomous bites and stings: incorporating the updated CSL antivenom handbook (2013). (White, J.)   External resource


Guidelines for the prevention and clinical management of snakebites in Africa (2010). (World Health Organization)  Download  


Manual para la identificación, prevención y tratamiento de mordeduras de serpientes venenosas en Centro América, Volumen I: Guatemala (2009). (Pan American Health Organization)  Download

Key Papers

Adams, A., J. Garrison, S. Mcdaniel, E. Bueche, and H. Howell. 2020. Don’t tread on me: an examination of the anti-predatory behavior of Eastern Copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix). Acta Herpetologica 15:31-37.  Download


Akani, G. C., N. Ebere, D. Franco, E. A. Eniang, F. Petrozzi, E. Politano, and L. Luiselli. 2013. Correlation between annual activity patterns of venomous snakes and rural people in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 19:2.  Download

Bateman, H. L., J. A. Brown, K. L. Larson, R. Andrade, and B. Hughes. 2021. Unwanted residential wildlife: evaluating social-ecological patterns for snake removals. Global Ecology and Conservation:e01601.  Download

Bochner, R., J. T. Fiszon, and C. Machado. 2014. A profile of snake bites in Brazil, 2001 to 2012. Journal of Clinical Toxicology 4.  Download


Bolon, I., M. Finat, M. Herrera, A. Nickerson, D. Grace, S. Schütte, S. Babo Martins, and R. Ruiz de Castañeda. 2019. Snakebite in domestic animals: first global scoping review. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 170:104729.  Download


Brown, J. R., Bishop, C. A. and Brooks, R. J. 2009. Effectiveness of short-distance translocation and its effects on western rattlesnakes. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:419-425.  External resource


Butler, H., Malone, B. and Clemann, N. 2005. Activity patterns and habitat preferences of translocated and resident tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) in a suburban landscape. Wildlife Research 32:157-163.  External resource


Chen, X., H. He, and H. Cai. 2019. Clinical and epidemiologic profile of venomous snakebites in Chongqing Wuling mountainous area, western China. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 113:587-589.  Download


Chew, K. S., H. W. Khor, R. Ahmad, and N. H. N. A. Rahman. 2011. A five-year retrospective review of snakebite patients admitted to a tertiary university hospital in Malaysia. International journal of emergency medicine 4:41-41.  Download


Corbett, B., and R. F. Clark. 2017. North American snake envenomation. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 35:339-354.  External resource


Corbit, A. G., and W. K. Hayes. 2022. Human-wildlife conflict at a suburban-wildlands interface: effects of short- and long-distance translocations on red diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber) activity and survival. Diversity 14:130.  Download

De Castro, S. G., and X. V. Fernández. 2005. El manejo de las mordeduras de serpiente en Sudamérica. Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias 17:267-273.  Download


Devan-Song, A., P. Martelli, D. Dudgeon, P. Crow, G. Ades, and N. E. Karraker. 2016. Is long-distance translocation an effective mitigation tool for white-lipped pit vipers (Trimeresurus albolabris) in South China? Biological Conservation 204:212-220.  External resource


Ediriweera, D. S., A. Kasturiratne, A. Pathmeswaran, N. K. Gunawardena, B. A. Wijayawickrama, S. F. Jayamanne, G. K. Isbister, A. Dawson, E. Giorgi, P. J. Diggle, D. G. Lalloo, and H. J. de Silva. 2016. Mapping the risk of snakebite in Sri Lanka - a national survey with geospatial analysis. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10:e0004813.  Download


Feitosa, E. S., V. Sampaio, J. Sachett, D. B. d. Castro, M. d. D. N. Noronha, J. L. L. Lozano, E. Muniz, L. C. d. L. Ferreira, M. V. G. d. Lacerda, and W. M. Monteiro. 2015. Snakebites as a largely neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon: highlights of the epidemiological trends in the State of Amazonas. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 48:34-41.  Download


Fry, B. G. 2018. Snakebite: when the human touch becomes a bad touch. Toxins 10:170.  Download


Germano, J. M., and P. J. Bishop. 2009. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation. Conservation Biology 23:7-15.  Download


Gutiérrez, J. M., T. Burnouf, R. A. Harrison, J. J. Calvete, N. Brown, S. D. Jensen, D. A. Warrell, D. J. Williams, and I. Global Snakebite. 2015. A call for incorporating social research in the global struggle against snakebite. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9:e0003960.  Download


Hodges, C. W., C. H. Barnes, P. Patungtaro, and C. T. Strine. 2021. Deadly dormmate: a case study on Bungarus candidus living among a student dormitory with implications for human safety. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 2:e12047.  Download

Hodges, C. W., B. M. Marshall, J. G. Hill, and C. T. Strine. 2022. Malayan kraits (Bungarus candidus) show affinity to anthropogenic structures in a human dominated landscape. Scientific Reports 12:7139. Download

Johnston, C. I., N. M. Ryan, C. B. Page, N. A. Buckley, S. G. Brown, M. A. O'Leary, and G. K. Isbister. 2017. The Australian Snakebite Project, 2005–2015 (ASP-20). Medical Journal of Australia 207:119-125.  Download


Kasturiratne, A., A. R. Wickremasinghe, N. de Silva, N. K. Gunawardena, A. Pathmeswaran, R. Premaratna, L. Savioli, D. G. Lalloo, and H. J. de Silva. 2008. The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths. PLOS Medicine 5:e218.  Download


Kontsiotis, V. J., A. Rapti, and V. Liordos. 2022. Public attitudes towards venomous and non-venomous snakes. Science of The Total Environment:154918.   External resource

Longbottom, J., F. M. Shearer, M. Devine, G. Alcoba, F. Chappuis, D. J. Weiss, S. E. Ray, N. Ray, D. A. Warrell, R. Ruiz de Castañeda, D. J. Williams, S. I. Hay, and D. M. Pigott. 2018. Vulnerability to snakebite envenoming: a global mapping of hotspots. The Lancet 392:673-684.  Download


Malhotra, A., W. Wüster, J. B. Owens, C. W. Hodges, A. Jesudasan, G. Ch, A. Kartik, P. Christopher, J. Louies, H. Naik, V. Santra, S. R. Kuttalam, S. Attre, M. Sasa, C. Bravo-Vega, and K. A. Murray. 2021. Promoting co-existence between humans and venomous snakes through increasing the herpetological knowledge base. Toxicon: X:100081.  Download

Malik, R., J. O. Bukie, and J. J. Oigocho. 2018. Assessment of snake bite in some selected communities in Benue State, Nigeria. Page 64 in Proceedings of 6th NSCB Biodiversity Conference; Uniuyo.  Download


Marshall, B. M., C. T. Strine, M. D. Jones, A. Theodorou, E. Amber, S. Waengsothorn, P. Suwanwaree, and M. Goode. 2018. Hits close to home: repeated persecution of king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) in northeastern Thailand. Tropical Conservation Science 11:1940082918818401.  Download


McGhee, S., A. Finnegan, J. M. Clochesy, and C. Visovsky. 2015. Effects of snake envenomation: a guide for emergency nurses. Emergency nurse 22.  External resource


Menon, J. C., J. K. Joseph, and R. E. Whitaker. 2017. Venomous snake bite in India-why do 50,000 Indians die every year? J Assoc Physicians India 65:78-81.  Download


Mise, Y. F., R. M. Lira-da-Silva, and F. M. Carvalho. 2018. Time to treatment and severity of snake envenoming in Brazil. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 42:e52.  Download


Mohapatra, B., D. A. Warrell, W. Suraweera, P. Bhatia, N. Dhingra, R. M. Jotkar, P. S. Rodriguez, K. Mishra, R. Whitaker, P. Jha, and C. for the Million Death Study. 2011. Snakebite mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5:e1018.  Download


Musah, Y., D. K. Attuquayefio, A. N. A. Pobee, and L. H. Holbech. 2021. Ophidiophobia, myth generation, and human perceptions: implications for snake conservation in a typical savanna community of northern Ghana. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-22.  External resource

Narayanan, Y., and S. Bindumadhav. 2019. ‘Posthuman cosmopolitanism’ for the Anthropocene in India: urbanism and human-snake relations in the Kali Yuga. Geoforum 106:402-410.  External resource


Nonga, H. E., and A. Haruna. 2015. Assessment of human-snake interaction and its outcomes in Monduli District, northern Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research 17.  Download


Ochola, F. O., M. O. Okumu, G. M. Muchemi, J. M. Mbaria, and J. K. Gikunju. 2018. Epidemiology of snake bites in selected areas of Kenya. The Pan African medical journal 29:217-217.  Download


Pandey, D. P., G. S. Pandey, K. Devkota, and M. Goode. 2016. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12:24.  Download


Pintor, A. F. V., N. Ray, J. Longbottom, C. A. Bravo-Vega, M. Yousefi, K. A. Murray, D. S. Ediriweera, and P. J. Diggle. 2021. Addressing the global snakebite crisis with geo-spatial analyses – recent advances and future direction. Toxicon: X 11:100076.  Download

Roberts, N. L. S., E. K. Johnson, S. M. Zeng, E. B. Hamilton, A. Abdoli, F. Alahdab, V. Alipour, R. Ancuceanu, C. L. Andrei, D. Anvari, J. Arabloo, M. Ausloos, A. F. Awedew, A. D. Badiye, S. M. Bakkannavar, A. Bhalla, N. Bhardwaj, P. Bhardwaj, S. Bhaumik, A. Bijani, A. Boloor, T. Cai, F. Carvalho, D.-T. Chu, R. A. S. Couto, X. Dai, A. A. Desta, H. T. Do, L. Earl, A. Eftekhari, F. Esmaeilzadeh, F. Farzadfar, E. Fernandes, I. Filip, M. Foroutan, R. C. Franklin, A. M. Gaidhane, B. G. Gebregiorgis, B. Gebremichael, A. Ghashghaee, M. Golechha, S. Hamidi, S. E. Haque, K. Hayat, C. Herteliu, O. S. Ilesanmi, M. M. Islam, J. Jagnoor, T. Kanchan, N. Kapoor, E. A. Khan, M. N. Khatib, R. Khundkar, K. Krishan, G. A. Kumar, N. Kumar, I. Landires, S. S. Lim, M. Madadin, V. Maled, N. Manafi, L. B. Marczak, R. G. Menezes, T. J. Meretoja, T. R. Miller, A. Mohammadian-Hafshejani, A. H. Mokdad, F. N. P. Monteiro, M. Moradi, V. C. Nayak, C. T. Nguyen, H. L. T. Nguyen, V. Nuñez-Samudio, S. M. Ostroff, J. R. Padubidri, H. Q. Pham, M. Pinheiro, M. Pirestani, Z. Quazi Syed, N. Rabiee, A. Radfar, V. Rahimi-Movaghar, S. J. Rao, P. Rastogi, D. L. Rawaf, S. Rawaf, R. C. Reiner, A. Sahebkar, A. M. Samy, M. Sawhney, D. C. Schwebel, S. Senthilkumaran, M. A. Shaikh, V. Y. Skryabin, A. A. Skryabina, A. Soheili, M. A. Stokes, R. Thapar, M. R. Tovani-Palone, B. X. Tran, R. S. Travillian, D. Z. Velazquez, Z.-J. Zhang, M. Naghavi, R. Dandona, L. Dandona, S. L. James, D. M. Pigott, C. J. L. Murray, S. I. Hay, T. Vos, K. L. Ong, and G. B. D. S. E. Collaborators. 2022. Global mortality of snakebite envenoming between 1990 and 2019. Nature Communications 13:6160.   Download

Senji Laxme, R. R., S. Khochare, H. F. de Souza, B. Ahuja, V. Suranse, G. Martin, R. Whitaker, and K. Sunagar. 2019. Beyond the ‘big four’: venom profiling of the medically important yet neglected Indian snakes reveals disturbing antivenom deficiencies. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 13:e0007899.  Download


Stewart, C. J. 2003. Snake bite in Australia: first aid and envenomation management. Accident and Emergency Nursing 11:106-111.  External resource


Sullivan, B. K., E. M. Nowak, and M. A. Kwiatkowski. 2015. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna. Conservation Biology 29:12-18.  External resource


Suraweera, W., D. Warrell, R. Whitaker, G. Menon, R. Rodrigues, S. H. Fu, R. Begum, P. Sati, K. Piyasena, M. Bhatia, P. Brown, and P. Jha. 2020. Trends in snakebite deaths in India from 2000 to 2019 in a nationally representative mortality study. eLife 9:e54076.  Download


Udyawer, V., C. Goiran, and R. Shine. 2021. Peaceful coexistence between people and deadly wildlife: why are recreational users of the ocean so rarely bitten by sea snakes? People and Nature 3:335-346.  Download

Uyeda, L. T., Ardiantiono, E. Iskandar, A. J. Wirsing, and R. C. Kyes. 2022. Snakebite envenomation, attitudes, and behavior toward snakes in Banten, Indonesia. Animals 12:2051.  Download

Warrell, D. A. 2005. Treatment of bites by adders and exotic venomous snakes. BMJ 331:1244-1247.  External resource


Whitaker, R. 2018. Snakebite Mitigation Project of the Madras Crocodile Bank/Centre for Herpetology, India: background and a brief summary of activities. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 113:818-819.  External resource


Whitaker, R., and S. Whitaker. 2012. Venom, antivenom production and the medically important snakes of India. Current Science 103:635-643.  External resource


Williams, S. S., C. A. Wijesinghe, S. F. Jayamanne, N. A. Buckley, A. H. Dawson, D. G. Lalloo, and H. J. de Silva. 2011. Delayed psychological morbidity associated with snakebite envenoming. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5:e1255.  Download


Wood, D., B. Sartorius, and R. Hift. 2016. Snakebite in north-eastern South Africa: clinical characteristics and risks for severity. South African Family Practice 58:62-67.  Download

Yuan, F. L., U. P. Ballullaya, R. Roshnath, T. C. Bonebrake, and P. A. Sinu. 2020. Sacred groves and serpent-gods moderate human–snake relations. People and Nature 2:111-122.  Download


Yue, S., T. C. BoneBrake, and L. Gibson. 2019. Human-snake conflict patterns in a dense urban-forest mosaic landscape. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 14:143-154.  Download


Zúñiga Carrasco, I. R., and J. Caro Lozano. 2013. Aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la mordedura de serpientes en México. Evidencia médica e investigación en salud 6:125-136.  Download  

Books and book chapters

de Oliveira, S. S., V. de Souza Sampaio, J. de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, E. Campos Alves, V. C. da Silva, J. A. Alcântara de Lima, I. M. da Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, P. Bernarde, H. W. Fan, M. V. Guimarães de Lacerda, and W. M. Monteiro. 2018. Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: current knowledge and perspectives. Pages 73-99 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.  External resource


Gutiérrez, J. M. 2018. Snakebite envenoming in Latin America and the Caribbean. Pages 51-72 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.  External resource


Marais, J. 2014. Snakes & snakebite in Southern Africa. Penguin Random House South Africa.  External resource


Otero-Patiño, R. 2018. Snake bites in Colombia. Pages 3-50 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.  External resource


Persson, H. 2018. Pathophysiology and treatment of envenomation by European vipers. Pages 357-375 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.  External resource


Tibballs, J. 2018. Australian snakebite and treatment. Pages 181-221 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.  External resource


Warrell, D. A. 2015. Envenoming: consequences and management. Pages 1-10 eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester.  External resource


Whitaker, R., and G. Martin. 2015. Diversity and distribution of medically important snakes of India. Pages 115-136 in P. Gopalakrishnakone, A. Faiz, R. Fernando, C. A. Gnanathasan, A. G. Habib, and C.-C. Yang, editors. Clinical toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.  External resource




Four deadliest snakes in India: a survival guide

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