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Guidance Documents

Using ethnographic research for social engagement: a toolkit for orangutan (and other) conservationists (2022). (Chua, L., V. Schreer, and P. H. Thung)  Download

Primate conservation: global evidence for the effects of interventions (2017). (Junker, J., Kühl, H.S., Orth, L., Smith, R.K., Petrovan, S.O. and Sutherland, W.J.)  External resource


Deterring crop-foraging wildlife: lessons from farms in north-western Uganda (2016). (Wallace, G., and C. Hill)  Download

Best practice guidelines for the prevention and mitigation of conflict between humans and great apes (2009). (Hockings, K. and Humle, T.)

French  Download     English  Download     Bahasa Indonesia  Download


Guidelines for better management practices on avoidance, mitigation and management of human-orangutan conflict in and around oil palm plantations (2007). (WWF-Indonesia)  Download


Human-wildlife conflict: identifying the problem and possible solutions (2002). (Wildlife Conservation Society)  Download

Key Papers

Ampumuza, C. 2022. Living with gorillas? Lessons from Batwa-gorillas’ convivial relations at Bwindi Forest, Uganda.  Download

Anand, S., V. V. Binoy, and S. Radhakrishna. 2018. The monkey is not always a God: attitudinal differences toward crop-raiding macaques and why it matters for conflict mitigation. Ambio.  External resource

Anand, S., and S. Radhakrishna. 2022. Collective movement decision-making in primates in crop-raiding contexts. Behavioural Processes:104604.  External resource

Anand, S., S. Vaidyanathan, and S. Radhakrishna. 2021. The role of landscape structure in primate crop feeding: insights from rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in northern India. International Journal of Primatology.  External resource

Baranga, D., G. I. Basuta, J. A. Teichroeb, and C. A. Chapman. 2012. Crop raiding patterns of solitary and social groups of red-tailed monkeys on cocoa pods in Uganda. Tropical Conservation Science 5:104-111.  Download


Beisner, B. A., A. Heagerty, S. K. Seil, K. N. Balasubramaniam, E. R. Atwill, B. K. Gupta, P. C. Tyagi, N. P. S. Chauhan, B. S. Bonal, P. R. Sinha, and B. McCowan. 2015. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156:286-294.  External resource


Bersacola, E., C. M. Hill, and K. J. Hockings. 2021. Chimpanzees balance resources and risk in an anthropogenic landscape of fear. Scientific Reports 11:4569.  Download

Boulton, A. M., J. A. Horrocks, and J. Baulu. 1996. The barbados vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaens): changes in population size and crop damage, 1980–1994. International Journal of Primatology 17:831-844.  External resource


Bracken, A. M., C. Christensen, M. J. O’Riain, G. Fehlmann, M. D. Holton, P. W. Hopkins, I. Fürtbauer, and A. J. King. 2021. Socioecology explains individual variation in urban space use in response to management in Cape chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). International Journal of Primatology.  Download

Campbell-Smith, G., R. Sembiring, and M. Linkie. 2012. Evaluating the effectiveness of human-orangutan conflict mitigation strategies in Sumatra. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:367-375.  External resource


Campbell-Smith, G., H. V. P. Simanjorang, N. Leader-Williams, and M. Linkie. 2010. Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 72:866-876.  External resource


Chapman, K. L., M. J. Lawes, and M. M. Macleod. 1998. Evaluation of non-lethal control methods on problematic Samango monkeys in the Cape Vidal Recreation Reserve, Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 28:89-99.  External resource


Chua, L., M. E. Harrison, H. Fair, S. Milne, A. Palmer, J. Rubis, P. Thung, S. Wich, B. Büscher, S. M. Cheyne, R. K. Puri, V. Schreer, A. Stępień, and E. Meijaard. 2020. Conservation and the social sciences: beyond critique and co-optation. A case study from orangutan conservation. People and Nature 2:42-60.  Download


Dickman, A. J. 2012. From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human-carnivore conflict and human-primate conflict. Folia Primatologica 83:377-387.  External resource


Dittus, W. P. J., S. Gunathilake, and M. Felder. 2019. Assessing public perceptions and solutions to human-monkey conflict from 50 years in Sri Lanka. Folia Primatologica 90:89-108.  External resource


Dore, K. M., A. R. Eller, and J. L. Eller. 2018. Identity construction and symbolic association in farmer-vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) interconnections in St. Kitts. Folia Primatologica 89:63-80.  External resource


Engeman, R. M., J. E. Laborde, B. U. Constantin, S. A. Shwiff, P. Hall, A. Duffiney, and F. Luciano. 2010. The economic impacts to commercial farms from invasive monkeys in Puerto Rico. Crop Protection 29:401-405.  External resource


Estrada, A., B. E. Raboy, and L. C. Oliveira. 2012. Agroecosystems and primate conservation in the tropics: a review. American Journal of Primatology 74:696-711.  External resource


Fehlmann, G., M. J. O'Riain, C. Kerr-Smith, S. Hailes, M. Holton, P. Hopkins, and A. J. King. 2023. Using behavioral studies to adapt management decisions and reduce negative interactions between humans and baboons in Cape Town, South Africa. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e12948.   Download

Fehlmann, G., M. J. O'Riain, C. Kerr-Smith, and A. J. King. 2017. Adaptive space use by baboons (Papio ursinus) in response to management interventions in a human-changed landscape. Animal Conservation 20:101-109.  External resource


Fuentes, A., S. Kalchik, L. Gettler, A. Kwiatt, M. Konecki, and L. Jones-Engel. 2008. Characterizing human-macaque interactions in Singapore. American Journal of Primatology 70:879-883.  External resource


Gopalan, R., and S. Radhakrishna. 2022. Moving from coexistence to conflict: a political ecology perspective on human-rhesus macaque conflict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Human Ecology.  External resource

Hardwick, J. L., N. E. C. Priston, T. E. Martin, D. G. Tosh, A. H. Mustari, and K. E. Abernethy. 2017. Community perceptions of the crop-feeding buton macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): an ethnoprimatological study on Buton Island, Sulawesi. International Journal of Primatology 38:1102-1119.  External resource


Hill, C. M. 1997. Crop-raiding by wild vertebrates: the farmer's perspective in an agricultural community in western Uganda. International Journal of Pest Management 43:77-84.  External resource  


Hill, C. M. 2000. Conflict of interest between people and baboons: crop raiding in Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 21:299-315.  External resource


Hill, C. M. 2002. Primate conservation and local communities - ethical issues and debates. American Anthropologist 104:1184-1194.  External resource


Hill, C. M. 2004. Farmers’ perspectives of conflict at the wildlife–agriculture boundary: some lessons learned from African subsistence farmers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9:279-286.  External resource


Hill, C. M. 2017. Crop raiding. The International Encyclopedia of Primatology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  External resource


Hill, C. M. 2017. Primate crop feeding behavior, crop protection, and conservation. International Journal of Primatology 38:385-400.  External resource


Hill, C. M. 2018. Crop foraging, crop losses, and crop raiding. Annual Review of Anthropology 47  External resource


Hill, C. M., and G. E. Wallace. 2012. Crop protection and conflict mitigation: reducing the costs of living alongside non-human primates. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:2569-2587.  External resource


Hill, C. M., and A. D. Webber. 2010. Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human-wildlife conflict scenarios. American Journal of Primatology 72:919-924.  External resource


Hockings, K. J., J. R. Anderson, and T. Matsuzawa. 2009. Use of wild and cultivated foods by chimpanzees at Bossou, Republic of Guinea: feeding dynamics in a human-influenced environment. American Journal of Primatology 71:636-646.  External resource


Hockings, K. J., and M. R. McLennan. 2012. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees - management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes. Plos One 7:11.  Download


Hockings, K. J., and C. Sousa. 2012. Differential utilization of cashew-a low-conflict crop-by sympatric humans and chimpanzees. Oryx 46:375-381.  External resource


Hockings, K. J., G. Yamakoshi, A. Kabasawa, and T. Matsuzawa. 2010. Attacks on local persons by chimpanzees in Bossou, Republic of Guinea: long-term perspectives. American Journal of Primatology 72:887-896.  External resource


Hockings, K. J., G. Yamakoshi, and T. Matsuzawa. 2017. Dispersal of a human-cultivated crop by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a forest–farm matrix. International Journal of Primatology 38:172-193.  External resource


Hoffman, T. S., and M. J. O'Riain. 2012. Landscape requirements of a primate population in a human-dominated environment. Frontiers in Zoology 9:17.  Download


Hoffman, T. S., and M. J. O'Riain. 2012. Monkey management: using spatial ecology to understand the extent and severity of human-baboon conflict in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Ecology and Society 17:16.  Download


Hsiao, S. S., C. Ross, C. M. Hill, and G. E. Wallace. 2013. Crop-raiding deterrents around Budongo Forest Reserve: an evaluation through farmer actions and perceptions. Oryx 47:569-577.  External resource


Kansky, R., M. Kidd, and A. T. Knight. 2014. Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife. Conservation Biology 28:924-938.  Download


Kansky, R., M. Kidd, and A. T. Knight. 2016. A wildlife tolerance model and case study for understanding human wildlife conflicts. Biological Conservation 201:137-145.  External resource


Kansky, R., and A. T. Knight. 2014. Key factors driving attitudes towards large mammals in conflict with humans. Biological Conservation 179:93-105.  Download


Kaplan, B. S., M. J. O'Riain, R. van Eeden, and A. J. King. 2011. A low-cost manipulation of food resources reduces spatial overlap between baboons (Papio ursinus) and humans in conflict. International Journal of Primatology 32:1397-1412.  External resource


Knight, J. 1999. Monkeys on the move: the natural symbolism of people-macaque conflict in Japan. The Journal of Asian Studies 58:622-647.  External resource


Knight, J. 2017. Wildlife tourism as crop protection? Double-goal provisioning and the transvaluation of the macaque in postwar Japan. Human-Wildlife Interactions 11:217.  External resource


Koirala, S., P. A. Garber, D. Somasundaram, H. B. Katuwal, B. Ren, C. Huang, and M. Li. 2021. Factors affecting the crop raiding behavior of wild rhesus macaques in Nepal: implications for wildlife management. Journal of Environmental Management 297:113331.  External resource

Kyokuhaire, A. M., C. A. Chapman, P. A. Omeja, D. M. Tumusiime, B. Y. Abwoli, and M. J. Lawes. Mitigating crop raiding by forest elephants and baboons at Kibale National Park. African Journal of Ecology.   External resource

Lacroux, C., B. Robira, N. Kane-Maguire, N. Guma, and S. Krief. 2022. Between forest and croplands: nocturnal behavior in wild chimpanzees of Sebitoli, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Plos One 17:e0268132.   Download

Linkie, M., Y. Dinata, A. Nofrianto, and N. Leader-Williams. 2007. Patterns and perceptions of wildlife crop raiding in and around Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Animal Conservation 10:127-135.  Download


Marchal, V., and C. Hill. 2009. Primate crop-raiding: a study of local perceptions in four villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 24:107-116.  Download


Mazue, F., C. Guerbois, H. Fritz, N. Rebout, and O. Petit. 2022. Less bins, less baboons: reducing access to anthropogenic food effectively decreases the urban foraging behavior of a troop of chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in a peri-urban area. Primates.   External resource

Mc Guinness, S. K. 2016. Perceptions of crop raiding: effects of land tenure and agro-industry on human-wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation 19:578-587.  External resource


McLennan, M. R. 2013. Diet and feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Bulindi, Uganda: foraging strategies at the forest–farm interface. International Journal of Primatology 34:585-614.  External resource


McLennan, M. R., and C. M. Hill. 2012. Troublesome neighbours: changing attitudes towards chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a human-dominated landscape in Uganda. Journal for Nature Conservation 20:219-227.  External resource


McLennan, M. R., and K. J. Hockings. 2014. Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops. Scientific Reports 4:5956.  Download


McLennan, M. R., C. P. Howell, M. Bardi, and M. Heistermann. 2019. Are human-dominated landscapes stressful for wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)? Biological Conservation 233:73-82.  External resource


Meijaard, E., D. Buchori, Y. Hadiprakarsa, S. S. Utami-Atmoko, A. Nurcahyo, A. Tjiu, D. Prasetyo, Nardiyono, L. Christie, M. Ancrenaz, F. Abadi, I. N. G. Antoni, D. Armayadi, A. Dinato, Ella, P. Gumelar, T. P. Indrawan, Kussaritano, C. Munajat, C. W. P. Priyono, Y. Purwanto, D. Puspitasari, M. S. W. Putra, A. Rahmat, H. Ramadani, J. Sammy, D. Siswanto, M. Syamsuri, N. Andayani, H. H. Wu, J. A. Wells, and K. Mengersen. 2011. Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Plos One 6:10.  Download


Mochizuki, S., and T. Murakami. 2013. Scale dependent effects in resource selection by crop-raiding Japanese macaques in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Applied Geography 42:13-22.  External resource


Naughton-Treves, L. 1998. Predicting patterns of crop damage by wildlife around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conservation Biology 12:156-168.  External resource


Naughton-Treves, L., A. Treves, C. Chapman, and R. Wrangham. 1998. Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by primates: linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 35:596-606.  External resource


Nijman, V., and K. A. I. Nekaris. 2010. Testing a model for predicting primate crop-raiding using crop- and farm-specific risk values. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 127:125-129.  External resource


O'Brien, E. P., and C. M. Hill. 2018. Assessing the potential of non-harmful, natural feeding deterrents tested on captive primates. International Journal of Pest Management 64:59-65.  External resource


Parathian, H. E., M. R. McLennan, C. M. Hill, A. Frazão-Moreira, and K. J. Hockings. 2018. Breaking through disciplinary barriers: human–wildlife interactions and multispecies ethnography. International Journal of Primatology.  Download


Pebsworth, P. A., R. Gawde, M. Bardi, B. V. Vijayan, and S. Radhakrishna. 2020. To kill or not to kill?: Factors related to people’s support of lethal and non-lethal strategies for managing monkeys in India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-18.  External resource


Pebsworth, P. A., and S. Radhakrishna. 2021. The costs and benefits of coexistence: what determines people's willingness to live near nonhuman primates? American Journal of Primatology 83:e23310.  External resource

Priston, N. E. C. 2009. Exclosure plots as a mechanism for quantifying damage to crops by primates. International Journal of Pest Management 55:243-249.  External resource


Priston, N. E. C., and S. J. Underdown. 2009. A simple method for calculating the likelihood of crop damage by primates: an epidemiological approach. International Journal of Pest Management 55:51-56.  External resource


Priston, N. E. C., R. M. Wyper, and P. C. Lee. 2012. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms. American Journal of Primatology 74:29-36.  External resource


Radford, L., S. Alexander, and S. Waters. 2018. On the rocks: using discourse analysis to examine relationships between barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and people on Gibraltar. Folia Primatologica 89:30-44.  External resource


Randimbiharinirina, R. D., T. Richter, B. M. Raharivololona, J. H. Ratsimbazafy, and D. Schüßler. 2021. To tell a different story: unexpected diversity in local attitudes towards Endangered Aye-ayes Daubentonia madagascariensis offers new opportunities for conservation. People and Nature 3:484-498.  External resource

Regmi, G. R., K. A. I. Nekaris, K. Kandel, and V. Nijman. 2013. Crop-raiding macaques: predictions, patterns and perceptions from Langtang National Park, Nepal. Endangered Species Research 20:217-226.  Download


Riley, E. P. 2007. The human-macaque interface: conservation implications of current and future overlap and conflict in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Anthropologist 109:473-484.  External resource


Riley, E. P. 2010. The importance of human-macaque folklore for conservation in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx 44:235-240.  External resource


Riley, E. P., and N. E. C. Priston. 2010. Macaques in farms and folklore: exploring the human-nonhuman primate interface in Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 72:848-854.  External resource


Saj, T., P. Sicotte, and J. D. Paterson. 1999. Influence of human food consumption on the time budget of vervets. International Journal of Primatology 20:977-994.  External resource


Saj, T. L., P. Sicotte, and J. D. Paterson. 2001. The conflict between vervet monkeys and farmers at the forest edge in Entebbe, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 39:195-199.  External resource


Schweitzer, C., T. Gaillard, C. Guerbois, H. Fritz, and O. Petit. 2017. Participant profiling and pattern of crop-foraging in Chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) in Zimbabwe: why does investigating age–sex classes matter? International Journal of Primatology 38:207-223.  External resource


Seiler, N., and M. M. Robbins. 2016. Factors influencing ranging on community land and crop raiding by mountain gorillas. Animal Conservation 19:176-188.  External resource


Siex, K. S., and T. T. Struhsaker. 1999. Colobus monkeys and coconuts: a study of perceived human-wildlife conflicts. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:1009-1020.  External resource


Sousa, J., A. Ainslie, and C. M. Hill. 2017. Sorcery and nature conservation. Environmental Conservation:1-6.  External resource


Strum, S. C. 1994. Prospects for management of primate pests. Revue D Ecologie-La Terre Et La Vie 49:295-306.  External resource


Strum, S. C. 2010. The development of primate raiding: implications for management and conservation. International Journal of Primatology 31:133-156.  Download


Tweheyo, M., C. M. Hill, and J. Obua. 2005. Patterns of crop raiding by primates around the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Wildlife Biology 11:237-247.  Download


Wallace, G. E., and C. M. Hill. 2012. Crop damage by primates: quantifying the key parameters of crop-raiding events. Plos One 7:13.  Download

Walton, B. J., L. J. Findlay, and R. A. Hill. 2021. Insights into short- and long-term crop-foraging strategies in a chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) from GPS and accelerometer data. Ecology and Evolution n/a.  Download


Warren, Y., B. Buba, and C. Ross. 2007. Patterns of crop-raiding by wild and domestic animals near Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management 53:207-216.  External resource


Waters, S., A. El Harrad, S. Bell, and J. M. Setchell. 2019. Interpreting people’s behavior toward primates using qualitative data: a case study from North Morocco. International Journal of Primatology.  Download


Webber, A. D., and C. M. Hill. 2014. Using participatory risk mapping (PRM) to identify and understand people's perceptions of crop loss to animals in Uganda. Plos One 9:11.  Download


Webber, A. D., C. M. Hill, and V. Reynolds. 2007. Assessing the failure of a community-based human-wildlife conflict mitigation project in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Oryx 41:177-184.  External resource


Weladji, R. B., and M. N. Tchamba. 2003. Conflict between people and protected areas within the Benoue Wildlife Conservation Area, North Cameroon. Oryx 37:72-79.  External resource

Books and book chapters

Hockings, K. J., and M. R. McLennan. 2016. Problematic primate behaviour in agricultural landscapes: chimpanzees as ‘pests’ and ‘predators’. Pages 137-156 in M. T. Waller, editor. Ethnoprimatology: primate conservation in the 21st century. Springer International Publishing, Cham.  External resource


Humle, T., and C. M. Hill. 2016. People-primate interactions: implications for primate S. A. Wich and A. J. Marshall, editors. An introduction to primate conservation. Oxford University Press.  External resource


Knight, J. 2017. Block, push or pull? Three responses to monkey crop-raiding in Japan. Pages 36-48 in C. M. Hill, A. D. Webber, and N. E. C. Priston, editors. Understanding conflicts about wildlife: a biosocial approach. Berghahn Books, New York, USA.  External resource


Naughton-Treves, L., J. L'Roe, A. L'Roe, and A. Treves. 2017. A long term comparison of local perceptions of crop loss to wildlife at Kibale National Park, Uganda: exploring consistency across individuals and C. M. Hill, A. D. Webber, and N. E. C. Priston, editors. Understanding conflicts about wildlife: a biosocial approach. Berghahn Books, New York.  External resource


Osborn, F. V., and C. M. Hill. 2005. Techniques to reduce crop loss: human and technical dimensions in Africa. Pages 72-85 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource


Paterson, J. D., and J. Wallis. 2005. Commensalism and conflict: the human-primate interface. American Society of Primatologists.  External resource


Sprague, D. 2002. Monkey in the backyard : encroaching wildlife and rural communities in Japan. Primate face to face.  External resource


Wallace, G. E., and C. M. Hill. 2017. Engaging farmers and understanding their behaviour to develop effective deterrents to crop damage by wildlife. Pages 170-193 in C. M. Hill, A. D. Webber, and N. E. C. Priston, editors. Understanding conflicts about wildlife: a biosocial approach. Berghahn Books, New York, USA.  External resource


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