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Monitoring & evaluation

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Guidance Documents

PRISM-Toolkit for evaluating the outcomes and impacts of small/medium-sized conservation projects. Version 1 (Conservation Evaluation)   Download


Evaluating the impacts of conservation interventions on human wellbeing: guidance for practitioners (2016). (Woodhouse, E., E. de Lange, and E.J. Milner-Gulland)  Download


Handbook on impact evaluation: quantitative methods and practices (2010). (The World Bank)  External resource


Theory-based impact evaluation: principles and practice (2009). (International Initiative for Impact Evaluation)  External resource

Key Papers

Alldredge, M. W., D. P. Walsh, L. L. Sweanor, R. B. Davies, and A. Trujillo. 2015. Evaluation of translocation of black bears involved in human-bear conflicts in South-Central Colorado. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39:334-340.  External resource


Baruch-Mordo, S., S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and J. Broderick. 2011. The carrot or the stick? Evaluation of education and enforcement as management tools for human-wildlife conflicts. Plos One 6:8.  Download


Baylis, K., J. Honey-Rosés, J. Börner, E. Corbera, D. Ezzine-de-Blas, P. J. Ferraro, R. Lapeyre, U. M. Persson, A. Pfaff, and S. Wunder. 2016. Mainstreaming impact evaluation in nature conservation. Conservation Letters 9:58-64.  Download


Bottrill, M. C., and R. L. Pressey. 2012. The effectiveness and evaluation of conservation planning. Conservation Letters 5:407-420.  Download


Brooks, J., K. A. Waylen, and M. B. Mulder. 2013. Assessing community-based conservation projects: a systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes. Environmental Evidence 2:2.  Download


Butler, J. R. A., J. C. Young, I. A. G. McMyn, B. Leyshon, I. M. Graham, I. Walker, J. M. Baxter, J. Dodd, and C. Warburton. 2015. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: learning from seals and salmon. Journal of Environmental Management 160:212-225.  Download


Espinosa, S., and S. K. Jacobson. 2012. Human-wildlife conflict and environmental education: evaluating a community program to protect the Andean bear in Ecuador. Journal of Environmental Education 43:55-65.  External resource


Gore, M. L., B. A. Knuth, P. D. Curtis, and J. E. Shanahan. 2006. Education programs for reducing American black bear-human conflict: indicators of success? Ursus 17:75-80.  External resource


Gore, M. L., B. A. Knuth, C. W. Scherer, and P. D. Curtis. 2008. Evaluating a conservation investment designed to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Conservation Letters 1:136-145.  Download


Kormos, C., and R. Gifford. 2014. The validity of self-report measures of proenvironmental behavior: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Environmental Psychology 40:359-371.  External resource


Maclennan, S. D., R. J. Groom, D. W. Macdonald, and L. G. Frank. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation 142:2419-2427.  External resource


Margoluis, R., C. Stem, N. Salafsky, and M. Brown. 2009. Using conceptual models as a planning and evaluation tool in conservation. Evaluation and Program Planning 32:138-147.  External resource


Mascia, M. B., S. Pallier, M. L. Thieme, A. Rowe, M. C. Bottrill, F. Danielsen, J. Geldmann, R. Naidoo, A. S. Pullin, and N. D. Burgess. 2014. Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation. Biological Conservation 169:258-267.  External resource


Sherry, J. L. 1997. Prosocial soap operas for development. The Journal of International Communication 4:75-101.  External resource


Stem, C., R. Margoluis, N. Salafsky, and M. Brown. 2005. Monitoring and evaluation in conservation: a review of trends and approaches. Conservation Biology 19:295-309.  External resource


Sutherland, W. J., A. S. Pullin, P. M. Dolman, and T. M. Knight. 2004. The need for evidence-based conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19:305-308.  External resource


Washington, H., J. Baillie, C. Waterman, and E. J. Milner-Gulland. 2015. A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of conservation attention at the species level. Oryx 49:481-491.  External resource

Webber, A. D., C. M. Hill, and V. Reynolds. 2007. Assessing the failure of a community-based human-wildlife conflict mitigation project in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Oryx 41:177-184.  External resource

Weise, F. J., J. R. Lemeris, S. J. Munro, A. Bowden, C. Venter, M. van Vuuren, and R. J. van Vuuren. 2015. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) running the gauntlet: an evaluation of translocations into free-range environments in Namibia. Peerj 3:35.  Download

Young, J. C., A. Jordan, K. R. Searle, A. Butler, D. S. Chapman, P. Simmons, and A. D. Watt. 2013. Does stakeholder involvement really benefit biodiversity conservation? Biological Conservation 158:359-370.  External resource


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