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Guidance Documents

Livestock guarding dogs - cultural heritage icons with a new relevance for mitigating conservation conflicts (2015). (Linnell, J.D.C. and Lescureux, N.)  External resource

Key Papers

Alexander, J., P. J. Chen, P. Damerell, W. Youkui, J. Hughes, K. Shi, and P. Riordan. 2015. Human wildlife conflict involving large carnivores in Qilianshan, China and the minimal paw-print of snow leopards. Biological Conservation 187:1-9.  External resource


Andersen, R., J. Karlsen, L. B. Austmo, J. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, and J.-M. Gaillard. 2007. Selectivity of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and recreational hunters for age, sex and body condition in roe deer Capreolus capreolus. Wildlife Biology 13:467-474.  Download


Barmoen, M., K. M. Bærum, M. Johansson, and K. E. Mathiesen. 2021. Trust in large carnivore science in Norway. European Journal of Wildlife Research 67:98.  Download

Bath, A., A. Olszanska, and H. Okarma. 2008. From a human dimensions perspective, the unknown large carnivore: public attitudes toward Eurasian lynx in Poland. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 13:31-46.  External resource


Bennett, J., A. Sjölander-Lindqvist, C. Sandström, and S. Larsson. 2022. Addressing the Swedish large carnivore controversy: identifying roadblocks in collaborative governance to reduce conflict. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Breitenmoser, U., C. Breitenmoser-Würsten, S. Capt, A. Molinari-Jobin, P. Molinari, and F. Zimmermann. 2007. Conservation of the lynx Lynx lynx in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Wildlife Biology 13:340-355.  Download  


Chapron, G., P. Kaczensky, J. D. C. Linnell, M. von Arx, D. Huber, H. Andren, J. V. Lopez-Bao, M. Adamec, F. Alvares, O. Anders, L. Balciauskas, V. Balys, P. Bedo, F. Bego, J. C. Blanco, U. Breitenmoser, H. Broseth, L. Bufka, R. Bunikyte, P. Ciucci, A. Dutsov, T. Engleder, C. Fuxjager, C. Groff, K. Holmala, B. Hoxha, Y. Iliopoulos, O. Ionescu, J. Jeremic, K. Jerina, G. Kluth, F. Knauer, I. Kojola, I. Kos, M. Krofel, J. Kubala, S. Kunovac, J. Kusak, M. Kutal, O. Liberg, A. Majic, P. Mannil, R. Manz, E. Marboutin, F. Marucco, D. Melovski, K. Mersini, Y. Mertzanis, R. W. Myslajek, S. Nowak, J. Odden, J. Ozolins, G. Palomero, M. Paunovic, J. Persson, H. Potocnik, P. Y. Quenette, G. Rauer, I. Reinhardt, R. Rigg, A. Ryser, V. Salvatori, T. Skrbinsek, A. Stojanov, J. E. Swenson, L. Szemethy, A. Trajce, E. Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, M. Vana, R. Veeroja, P. Wabakken, M. Wofl, S. Wolfl, F. Zimmermann, D. Zlatanova, and L. Boitani. 2014. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346:1517-1519.  External resource


Chen, P. J., Y. F. Gao, A. T. L. Lee, L. Cering, K. Shi, and S. G. Clark. 2016. Human-carnivore coexistence in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Nature Reserve, China: patterns and compensation. Biological Conservation 197:18-26.  External resource


Cinque, S., A. Sjölander-Lindqvist, and C. Sandström. 2021. Frontline bureaucrats in wildlife management: caught in the dilemma between effectiveness and responsiveness. Environmental Policy and Governance.  Download

Cretois, B., J. D. C. Linnell, B. Van Moorter, P. Kaczensky, E. B. Nilsen, J. Parada, and J. K. Rød. 2021. Coexistence of large mammals and humans is possible in Europe's anthropogenic landscapes. iScience 24.  Download

Frank, J., and A. Eklund. 2017. Poor construction, not time, takes its toll on subsidised fences designed to deter large carnivores. Plos One 12:e0175211.  Download


Garrote, G., G. Lopez, J. M. Gil-Sanchez, E. Rojas, M. Ruiz, J. F. Bueno, S. de Lillo, J. Rodriguez-Siles, J. M. Martin, J. Perez, M. Garcia-Tardio, G. Valenzuela, and M. A. Simon. 2013. Human-felid conflict as a further handicap to the conservation of the critically endangered Iberian lynx. European Journal of Wildlife Research 59:287-290.  External resource


Garrote, G., G. Lopez, M. Ruiz, S. De Lillo, J. F. Bueno, and M. A. Simon. 2015. Effectiveness of electric fences as a means to prevent Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) predation on lambs. Hystrix-Italian Journal of Mammalogy 26:61-62.  Download


Gervasi, V., J. D. C. Linnell, T. Berce, L. Boitani, R. Cerne, P. Ciucci, B. Cretois, D. Derron-Hilfiker, C. Duchamp, A. Gastineau, O. Grente, D. Huber, Y. Iliopoulos, A. A. Karamanlidis, I. Kojola, F. Marucco, Y. Mertzanis, P. Männil, H. Norberg, N. Pagon, L. Pedrotti, P.-Y. Quenette, S. Reljic, V. Salvatori, T. Talvi, M. von Arx, and O. Gimenez. 2021. Ecological correlates of large carnivore depredation on sheep in Europe. Global Ecology and Conservation 30:e01798.  Download

Gervasi, V., E. B. Nilsen, J. Odden, Y. Bouyer, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2014. The spatio-temporal distribution of wild and domestic ungulates modulates lynx kill rates in a multi-use landscape. Journal of Zoology 292:175-183.  Download


Grossmann, C. M., L. Patkó, D. Ortseifen, E. Kimmig, E.-M. Cattoen, and U. Schraml. 2020. Human-large carnivores co-existence in Europe – a comparative stakeholder network analysis. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8.  Download

Herfindal, I., J. D. C. Linnell, P. F. Moa, J. Odden, L. B. Austmo, and R. Andersen. 2005. Does recreational hunting of lynx reduce depredation losses of domestic sheep? Journal of Wildlife Management 69:1034-1042.  External resource


Hobbs, N. T., H. Andren, J. Persson, M. Aronsson, and G. Chapron. 2012. Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sami pastoralists. Ecological Applications 22:1640-1654.  External resource


Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34.  External resource


Kachel, S., K. Anderson, and Q. Shokirov. 2022. Predicting carnivore habitat use and livestock depredation risk with false-positive multi-state occupancy models. Biological Conservation 271:109588.   External resource

Karlsson, J., and Ö. Johansson. 2009. Predictability of repeated carnivore attacks on livestock favours reactive use of mitigation measures. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:166-171.  External resource


Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2010. Knowledge and perceptions of Macedonian hunters and herders: the influence of species specific ecology of bears, wolves, and lynx. Human Ecology 38:389-399.  External resource


Lescureux, N., J. D. C. Linnell, S. Mustafa, D. Melovski, A. Stojanov, G. Ivanov, V. Avukatov, M. von Arx, and U. Breitenmoser. 2011. Fear of the unknown: local knowledge and perceptions of the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in western Macedonia. Oryx 45:600-607.  External resource


Linnell, J. D. C. 2013. From conflict to coexistence: insights from multi-disciplinary research into the relationships between people, large carnivores and institutions. Istituto di Ecologia Applicata, Rome.  Download


Liukkonen, T., S. Mykrä, J. Bisi, and S. Kurki. 2009. Conflicts and compromises in Lynx Lynx lynx conservation and management in Finland. Wildlife Biology 15:165-174.  Download


Mabille, G., A. Stien, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Broseth, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2015. Sheep farming and large carnivores: what are the factors influencing claimed losses? Ecosphere 6:17.  Download


Mabille, G., A. Stien, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Brøseth, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2016. Mortality and lamb body mass growth in free‐ranging domestic sheep – environmental impacts including lethal and non‐lethal impacts of predators. Ecography 39:763-773.  External resource


Mathiesen, K. E., M. Barmoen, K. M. Bærum, and M. Johansson. 2021. Trust in researchers and researchers' statements in large carnivore conservation. People and Nature.  Download

Mattisson, J., G. B. Arntsen, E. B. Nilsen, L. E. Loe, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, J. Persson, and H. Andren. 2014. Lynx predation on semi-domestic reindeer: do age and sex matter? Journal of Zoology 292:56-63.  Download


Mattisson, J., J. Odden, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2014. A catch-22 conflict: access to semi-domestic reindeer modulates Eurasian lynx depredation on domestic sheep. Biological Conservation 179:116-122.  Download


Mattisson, J., J. Odden, E. B. Nilsen, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Persson, and H. Andren. 2011. Factors affecting Eurasian lynx kill rates on semi-domestic reindeer in northern Scandinavia: can ecological research contribute to the development of a fair compensation system? Biological Conservation 144:3009-3017.  External resource


Moa, P. F., I. Herfindal, J. D. C. Linnell, K. Overskaug, T. Kvam, and R. Andersen. 2006. Does the spatiotemporal distribution of livestock influence forage patch selection in Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx? Wildlife Biology 12:63-70.  Download


Næss, M. W., B.-J. Bårdsen, E. Pedersen, and T. Tveraa. 2011. Pastoral herding strategies and governmental management objectives: predation compensation as a risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry. Human Ecology 39:489-508.  Download


Namgail, T., J. L. Fox, and Y. V. Bhatnagar. 2007. Carnivore-caused livestock mortality in Trans-Himalaya. Environmental Management 39:490-496.  External resource


Nilsen, E. B., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and R. Andersen. 2009. Climate, season, and social status modulate the functional response of an efficient stalking predator: the Eurasian lynx. Journal of Animal Ecology 78:741-751.  External resource


Odden, J., I. Herfindal, J. D. C. Linnell, and R. Andersen. 2008. Vulnerability of domestic sheep to lynx depredation in relation to roe deer density. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:276-282.  External resource


Odden, J., J. D. C. Linnell, and R. Andersen. 2006. Diet of Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx, in the boreal forest of southeastern Norway: the relative importance of livestock and hares at low roe deer density. European Journal of Wildlife Research 52:237-244.  External resource


Odden, J., J. D. C. Linnell, P. F. Moa, I. Herfindal, T. Kvam, and R. Andersen. 2002. Lynx depredation on domestic sheep in Norway. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:98-105.  External resource


Odden, J., E. B. Nilsen, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2013. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep. Plos One 8:e79261  Download


Oliveira, T., A. Treves, J. V. López-Bao, and M. Krofel. 2021. The contribution of the LIFE program to mitigating damages caused by large carnivores in Europe. Global Ecology and Conservation 31:e01815.  Download

Pedersen, V. A., J. D. C. Linnell, R. Andersen, H. Andren, M. Linden, and P. Segerstrom. 1999. Winter lynx Lynx lynx predation on semi-domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus in northern Sweden. Wildlife Biology 5:203-211.  Download


Rigg, R., S. Findo, M. Wechselberger, M. L. Gorman, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and D. W. Macdonald. 2011. Mitigating carnivore-livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45:272-280.  External resource

Rode, J., L. Flinzberger, R. Karutz, A. Berghöfer, and C. Schröter-Schlaack. 2021. Why so negative? Exploring the socio-economic impacts of large carnivores from a European perspective. Biological Conservation 255:108918.  External resource

Roskaft, E., T. Bjerke, B. Kaltenborn, J. D. C. Linnell, and R. Andersen. 2003. Patterns of self-reported fear towards large carnivores among the Norwegian public. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:184-198.  External resource


Stahl, P., J. M. Vandel, V. Herrenschmidt, and P. Migot. 2001. The effect of removing lynx in reducing attacks on sheep in the French Jura Mountains. Biological Conservation 101:15-22.  External resource


Stahl, P., J. M. Vandel, V. Herrenschmidt, and P. Migot. 2001. Predation on livestock by an expanding reintroduced lynx population: long‐term trend and spatial variability. Journal of Applied Ecology 38:674-687.  External resource


Stahl, P., J. M. Vandel, S. Ruette, L. Coat, Y. Coat, and L. Balestra. 2002. Factors affecting lynx predation on sheep in the French Jura. Journal of Applied Ecology 39:204-216.  External resource


Treves, A. 2009. Hunting for large carnivore conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:1350-1356.  External resource


Tveraa, T., A. Stien, H. Broseth, and N. G. Yoccoz. 2014. The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamics. Journal of Applied Ecology 51:1264-1272.  Download


Vucetich, J. A., J. T. Bruskotter, and D. W. Macdonald. 2021. Can deliberative democracy favor a flourishing relationship between humans and carnivores? Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Wilson, C. J. 2004. Could we live with reintroduced large carnivores in the UK? Mammal Review 34:211-232.  External resource

Books and book chapters

Breitenmoser, U., A. Ryser, A. Molinari-Jobin, F. Zimmermann, H. Haller, P. Molinari, and C. Breitenmoser-Würsten. 2010. The changing impact of predation as a source of conflict between hunters and reintroduced lynx in Switzerland. Pages 493-506 in D. W. Macdonald and A. J. Loveridge, editors. Biology and conservation of wild felids. Oxford University Press, London.  External resource


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