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Engaging with stakeholders

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Guidance Documents

Using ethnographic research for social engagement: a toolkit for orangutan (and other) conservationists (2022). (Chua, L., V. Schreer, and P. H. Thung)  Download

Stakeholder engagement for wildlife conservation v1 (2022). (WildTeam. 2022)  Download

Community, conservation and collaboration: a framework for success (2019). (Lichtenfeld, L.L., Naro, E.M. and Snowden, E.)  External resource


The partners principles for community-based conservation (2016). (Mishra, C.)  Download


Free, prior and informed consent: an indigenous peoples' right and a good practice for local communities (2016). (FAO)  External resource


The BiodivERsA stakeholder engagement handbook (2014). (Durham, E., H. Baker, M. Smith, E. Moore, and V. Morgan)  Download  

Tools of engagement: a toolkit for engaging people in conservation (2011). (National Audubon Society)  Download


Core principles for public engagement (2009). (Atlee, T., S. Buckley, J. Godec, R.-A. Harris, S. Heierbacher, L. Nurse, S. Pyser, and S. R. McCallum.)  Download

Key Papers

Agrawal, A., and C. C. Gibson. 1999. Enchantment and disenchantment: the role of community in natural resource conservation. World Development 27:629-649.  Download


Arnstein, S. R. 1969. A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35:216-224.  External resource


Auster, R. E., S. W. Barr, and R. E. Brazier. 2020. Improving engagement in managing reintroduction conflicts: learning from beaver reintroduction. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management:1-22.  Download


Bijoor, A., M. Khanyari, R. Dorjay, S. Lobzang, and K. Suryawanshi. 2021. A need for context-based conservation: incorporating local knowledge to mitigate livestock predation by large carnivores. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Dietsch, A. M., D. M. Wald, M. J. Stern, and B. Tully. 2021. An understanding of trust, identity, and power can enhance equitable and resilient conservation partnerships and processes. Conservation Science and Practice 3:e421.  Download

Evely, A. C., M. Pinard, M. S. Reed, and I. Fazey. 2011. High levels of participation in conservation projects enhance learning. Conservation Letters 4:116-126.  Download


Fazey, I., L. Bunse, J. Msika, M. Pinke, K. Preedy, A. C. Evely, E. Lambert, E. Hastings, S. Morris, and M. S. Reed. 2014. Evaluating knowledge exchange in interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder research. Global Environmental Change 25:204-220.  External resource


Guibrunet, L., P. R. W. Gerritsen, J. A. Sierra-Huelsz, A. C. Flores-Díaz, E. García-Frapolli, E. García-Serrano, U. Pascual, and P. Balvanera. 2021. Beyond participation: how to achieve the recognition of local communities’ value-systems in conservation? Some insights from Mexico. People and Nature 3.  Download

Hatch, M. B. A., J. K. Parrish, S. S. Heppell, S. Augustine, L. Campbell, L. M. Divine, J. Donatuto, A. S. Groesbeck, and N. F. Smith. 2023. Boundary spanners: a critical role for enduring collaborations between Indigenous communities and mainstream scientists. Ecology and Society 28.   Download

Hurlbert, M., and J. Gupta. 2015. The split ladder of participation: a diagnostic, strategic, and evaluation tool to assess when participation is necessary. Environmental Science & Policy 50:100-113.  External resource

Jiren, T. S., M. Riechers, R. Kansky, and J. Fischer. 2021. Participatory scenario planning to facilitate human-wildlife coexistence. Conservation Biology.  Download

Kansky, R., and T. Maassarani. 2021. Teaching nonviolent communication to increase empathy between people and toward wildlife to promote human–wildlife coexistence. Conservation Letters n/a:e12862.  Download

König, H. J., S. Ceaușu, M. Reed, H. Kendall, K. Hemminger, H. Reinke, E.-F. Ostermann-Miyashita, E. Wenz, L. Eufemia, T. Hermanns, M. Klose, M. Spyra, T. Kuemmerle, and A. T. Ford. 2021. Integrated framework for stakeholder participation: methods and tools for identifying and addressing human–wildlife conflicts. Conservation Science and Practice 3:e399.  Download

Marino, A., P. Ciucci, S. M. Redpath, S. Ricci, J. Young, and V. Salvatori. 2021. Broadening the toolset for stakeholder engagement to explore consensus over wolf management. Journal of Environmental Management 296:113125.  External resource

Mathiesen, K. E., M. Barmoen, K. M. Bærum, and M. Johansson. 2021. Trust in researchers and researchers' statements in large carnivore conservation. People and Nature.  Download

Milich, K. M., K. Sorbello, L. Kolinski, R. Busobozi, and M. Kugonza. 2020. Case study of participatory action research for wildlife conservation. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e347.  Download


Mishra, C., J. C. Young, M. Fiechter, B. Rutherford, and S. M. Redpath. 2017. Building partnerships with communities for biodiversity conservation: lessons from Asian mountains. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:1583-1591.  Download


Reed, M. S. 2008. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation 141:2417-2431.  External resource


Reed, M. S., L. C. Stringer, I. Fazey, A. C. Evely, and J. H. J. Kruijsen. 2014. Five principles for the practice of knowledge exchange in environmental management. Journal of Environmental Management 146:337-345.  Download


Reed, M. S., S. Vella, E. Challies, J. de Vente, L. Frewer, D. Hohenwallner-Ries, T. Huber, R. K. Neumann, E. A. Oughton, J. Sidoli del Ceno, and H. van Delden. 2018. A theory of participation: what makes stakeholder and public engagement in environmental management work? Restoration Ecology 26:S7-S17.  External resource


Salvatori, V., E. Balian, J. C. Blanco, X. Carbonell, P. Ciucci, L. Demeter, A. Marino, A. Panzavolta, A. Sólyom, Y. von Korff, and J. C. Young. 2021. Are large carnivores the real issue? Solutions for improving conflict management through stakeholder participation. Sustainability 13:4482.  Download

Soliku, O., and U. Schraml. 2020. From conflict to collaboration: the contribution of co-management in mitigating conflicts in Mole National Park, Ghana. Oryx 54:483-493.  Download


Staddon, S., A. Byg, M. Chapman, R. Fish, A. Hague, and K. Horgan. 2021. The value of listening and listening for values in conservation. People and Nature.  Download

Swapan, M. S. H. 2016. Who participates and who doesn't? Adapting community participation model for developing countries. Cities 53:70-77.  External resource


Treves, A., R. B. Wallace, L. Naughton-Treves, and A. Morales. 2006. Co-managing human–wildlife conflicts: a review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11:383-396.  External resource

Williams, B. A., B. A. Simmons, M. Ward, J. Beher, A. J. Dean, T. Nou, T. M. Kenyon, M. Davey, C. B. Melton, P. J. Stewart-Sinclair, N. L. Hammond, E. Massingham, and C. J. Klein. 2021. The potential for applying “Nonviolent Communication” in conservation science. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e540.  Download

Young, J. C., J. S. Alexander, A. Bijoor, D. Sharma, A. Dutta, B. Agvaantseren, T. N. Mijiddorj, K. Jumabay, V. Amankul, B. Kabaeva, A. Nawaz, S. Khan, H. Ali, J. S. Rullman, K. Sharma, R. Murali, and C. Mishra. 2021. Community-based conservation for the sustainable management of conservation conflicts: learning from practitioners. Sustainability 13:7557.  Download

Zimmermann, A., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, S. Wilson, J. Chakrabarty, B. Hazarika, and D. Das. 2009. Community-based human-elephant conflict management in Assam. Gajah 30:34-40.  Download

Books and book chapters

Beierle, T. C., and J. Cayford. 2002. Democracy in practice: public participation in environmental decisions. Resources for the future, Washington.  External resource


Creighton, J. L. 2005. The public participation handbook: making better decisions through citizen involvement. Wiley.  External resource


Dovers, S., S. Feary, A. Martin, L. McMillan, D. Morgan, and M. Tollefson. 2015. Engagement and participation in protected area management: who, why, how and when. Pages 169-206 in G. L. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, and I. Pulsford, editors. Protected area governance and management ANU Press, Canberra.  Download

Naro, E. M., and L. L. Lichtenfeld. 2021. Transcending the boundaries of conservation and community development to achieve long-term sustainability for people and planet. Pages 23-45 in S. C. Underkoffler and H. R. Adams, editors. Wildlife biodiversity conservation: multidisciplinary and forensic approaches. Springer International Publishing, Cham.  External resource

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