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Guidance Documents

The predator safe livestock guide: an introduction to protecting livestock and deterring predators (2017). (Cheetah Conservation Botswana)  Download


Livestock guarding dogs - cultural heritage icons with a new relevance for mitigating conservation conflicts (2015). (Linnell, J.D.C. and Lescureux, N.)  External resource


Livestock guarding dog program: a farmers manual (2014). (Cheetah Conservation Botswana)  Download

Key Papers

Banasiak, N. M., M. W. Hayward, and G. I. H. Kerley. 2021. Emerging human–carnivore conflict following large carnivore reintroductions highlights the need to lift baselines. African Journal of Wildlife Research 51.  External resource

Boast, L., A. Houser, J. Horgan, H. Reeves, P. Phale, and R. Klein. 2016. Prey preferences of free-ranging cheetahs on farmland: scat analysis versus farmers' perceptions. African Journal of Ecology 54:424-433.  External resource


Boast, L. K., K. Good, and R. Klein. 2016. Translocation of problem predators: is it an effective way to mitigate conflict between farmers and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana? Oryx 50:537-544.  External resource


Corcoran, W., and B. Fisher. 2021. Life with big cats: local perceptions of big cat species. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Dickman, A. J. 2012. From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human-carnivore conflict and human-primate conflict. Folia Primatologica 83:377-387.  External resource


Durant, S. M., A. Marino, J. D. C. Linnell, A. Oriol-Cotterill, S. Dloniak, S. Dolrenry, P. Funston, R. J. Groom, L. Hanssen, J. Horgan, D. Ikanda, A. Ipavec, B. Kissui, L. Lichtenfeld, J. W. McNutt, N. Mitchell, E. Naro, A. Samna, and G. Yirga. 2022. Fostering coexistence between people and large carnivores in Africa: using a theory of change to identify pathways to impact and their underlying assumptions. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Hoffmann, C. F., N. W. Pilfold, K. A. Ruppert, A. Letoluai, L. Lenguya, I. Limo, and R. A. Montgomery. 2022. The integral nature of encounter rate in predicting livestock depredation risk. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34.  External resource


Kalyahe, M. M., H. Hofer, and M. L. East. 2022. Do anthropogenic sources of food increase livestock predation in the area surrounding Ruaha National Park? Environmental Conservation:1-9.  External resource

Khorozyan, I., A. Ghoddousi, M. Soofi, and M. Waltert. 2015. Big cats kill more livestock when wild prey reaches a minimum threshold. Biological Conservation 192:268-275.  External resource


Lindsey, P. A., Havemann, C. P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A. E., Retief, T. A., Rhebergen, T. and Van der Waal, C. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands. Plos One 8:14.  Download


Lucas, C., J. Abell, S. Bremner-Harrison, and K. Whitehouse-Tedd. 2022. Stakeholder perceptions of success in human-carnivore coexistence interventions. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Marker, L., A. Dickman, and M. Schumann. 2005. Using livestock guarding dogs as a conflict resolution strategy on Namibian farms. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 8:28-32.  Download


Marker, L., L. Pfeiffer, A. Siyaya, P. Seitz, G. Nikanor, B. Fry, C. O'Flaherty, and S. Verschueren. 2021. Twenty-five years of livestock guarding dog use across Namibian farmlands. Journal of Vertebrate Biology 69.  Download

Marker, L. L., and L. K. Boast. 2015. Human–wildlife conflict 10 years later: lessons learned and their application to cheetah conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 20:302-309.  External resource


Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2005. Perceived effectiveness of livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian farms. Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:329-336.  External resource


Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2005. Survivorship and causes of mortality for livestock-guarding dogs on Namibian rangeland. Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:337-343.  External resource


Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, M. G. L. Mills, R. M. Jeo, and D. W. Macdonald. 2008. Spatial ecology of cheetahs on north-central Namibian farmlands. Journal of Zoology 274:226-238.  External resource


Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, M. G. L. Mills, and D. W. Macdonald. 2003. Aspects of the management of cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus jubatus, trapped on Namibian farmlands. Biological Conservation 114:401-412.  External resource


Marker, L. L., M. G. L. Mills, and D. W. Macdonald. 2003. Factors influencing perceptions of conflict and tolerance toward cheetahs on Namibian farmlands. Conservation Biology 17:1290-1298.  External resource


Marker, L. L., J. R. Muntifering, A. J. Dickman, M. G. L. Mills, and D. W. Macdonald. 2003. Quantifying prey preferences of free-ranging Namibian cheetahs. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 33:43-53.  Download


Ogada, M. O., R. Woodroffe, N. O. Oguge, and L. G. Frank. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology 17:1521-1530.  External resource


Potgieter, G. C., G. I. H. Kerley, and L. L. Marker. 2016. More bark than bite? The role of livestock guarding dogs in predator control on Namibian farmlands. Oryx 50:514-522.  External resource


Potgieter, G. C., L. L. Marker, N. L. Avenant, and G. I. Kerley. 2013. Why Namibian farmers are satisfied with the performance of their livestock guarding dogs. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:403-415.  External resource


Rust, N. A., and L. L. Marker. 2013. Attitudes toward predators and conservancies among Namibian farmers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:463-468.  External resource


Rust, N. A., and L. L. Marker. 2014. Cost of carnivore coexistence on communal and resettled land in Namibia. Environmental Conservation 41:45-53.  External resource


Rust, N. A., K. M. Whitehouse-Tedd, and D. C. MacMillan. 2013. Perceived efficacy of livestock-guarding dogs in South Africa: implications for cheetah conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 37:690-697.  External resource


Schumann, M., B. Schumann, A. Dickman, L. H. Watson, and L. Marker. 2006. Assessing the use of swing gates in game fences as a potential non-lethal predator exclusion technique. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36:173-181.  Download


Selebatso, M., S. R. Moe, and J. E. Swenson. 2008. Do farmers support cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in Botswana despite livestock depredation? Oryx 42:430-436.  External resource


Thorn, M., M. Green, D. Scott, and K. Marnewick. 2013. Characteristics and determinants of human-carnivore conflict in South African farmland. Biodiversity and Conservation 22:1715-1730.  External resource


Venumière-Lefebvre, C. C., S. W. Breck, and K. R. Crooks. 2022. A systematic map of human-carnivore coexistence. Biological Conservation 268:109515.  External resource

Voigt, C. C., Thalwitzer, S., Melzheimer, J., Blanc, A. S., Jago, M. and Wachter, B. 2014. The conflict between cheetahs and humans on Namibian farmland elucidated by stable isotope diet analysis. Plos One 9:12.  Download


Weise, F. J., J. R. Lemeris, S. J. Munro, A. Bowden, C. Venter, M. van Vuuren, and R. J. van Vuuren. 2015. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) running the gauntlet: an evaluation of translocations into free-range environments in Namibia. Peerj 3:35.  Download


Weise, F. J., Stratford, K. J. and van Vuuren, R. J. 2014. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations - accounting for conservation. Plos One 9:10.  Download


Winterbach, H. E. K., Winterbach, C. W., Boast, L. K., Klein, R. and Somers, M. J. 2015. Relative availability of natural prey versus livestock predicts landscape suitability for cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana. Peerj 3:18.  Download


Woodroffe, R., Frank, L. G., Lindsey, P. A., Ranah, Smko and Romanach, S. 2007. Livestock husbandry as a tool for carnivore conservation in Africa's community rangelands: a case-control study. Biodiversity and Conservation 16:1245-1260.  External resource

Books and book chapters

Boast, L. K., E. V. Chelysheva, V. van der Merwe, A. Schmidt-Küntzel, E. H. Walker, D. Cilliers, M. Gusset, and L. Marker. 2018. Cheetah translocation and reintroduction programs: past, present, and future. Pages 275-289 in P. J. Nyhus, L. Marker, L. K. Boast, and A. Schmidt-Küntzel, editors. Cheetahs: biology and conservation. Academic Press.  External resource


Dickman, A., G. Potgieter, J. Horgan, K. Stoner, R. Klein, J. McManus, and L. Marker. 2018. Use of livestock guarding dogs to reduce human-cheetah conflict. Pages 209-221 in P. J. Nyhus, L. Marker, L. K. Boast, and A. Schmidt-Küntzel, editors. Cheetahs: biology and conservation. Academic Press.  External resource


Dickman, A., N. A. Rust, L. K. Boast, M. Wykstra, L. Richmond-Coggan, R. Klein, M. Selebatso, M. Msuha, and L. Marker. 2018. The costs and causes of human-cheetah conflict on livestock and game farms. Pages 173-189 in P. J. Nyhus, L. Marker, L. K. Boast, and A. Schmidt-Küntzel, editors. Cheetahs: biology and conservation. Academic Press.  External resource


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