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African elephant


Guidance Documents

Elephant movements and connectivity in the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Area (KAZA TFCA) (2023). (KAZA Elephant Sub Working Group) Download

Save the Elephants' HEC Toolbox (2022). (King, L., N. Raja, M. Kumar, and N. Heath)  Download

Guide for implementing community-based electric fences for the effective mitigation of human-elephant conflict (2020). (Fernando, P)  Download

Safety Around Elephants - field guide (2019). (Ecoexist)

Setswana  Download     Swahili  Download     Portuguese  Download     English  Download


Protecting Your Field - field guide (2019). (Ecoexist)  Download


Beehive fence construction manual: a step by step guide to building a protective beehive fence to deter crop-raiding elephants from farm land (2014). (King, L.E.)  External resource


A decision support system for managing human-elephant conflict in Africa (2001). (AfESG)

English  Download     French  Download     Portuguese  Download


A training course for community based approaches in Africa (2007). (AfESG)

Trainers Manual 

English  Download     French  Download


A training course for community based approaches in Africa (2007). (AfESG)

Participant's Manual 

English  Download     French  Download


Data collection and analysis protocol for human-elephant conflict situations in Africa. (AfESG)

English  Download     French  Download     Portuguese  Download


Training package for enumerators of elephant damage. (AfESG)

English  Download     French  Download     Portuguese  Download

Key Papers

Adams, T. S. F., M. J. Chase, T. L. Rogers, and K. E. A. Leggett. 2017. Taking the elephant out of the room and into the corridor: can urban corridors work? Oryx 51:347-353.  Download


Adams, T. S. F., K. E. A. Leggett, M. J. Chase, and M. A. Tucker. 2022. Who is adjusting to whom?: Differences in elephant diel activity in wildlife corridors across different human-modified landscapes. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Adams, T. S. F., I. Mwezi, and N. R. Jordan. 2020. Panic at the disco: solar-powered strobe light barriers reduce field incursion by African elephants Loxodonta africana in Chobe District, Botswana. Oryx:1-8.  External resource


Barnes, R. F. W. 1996. The conflict between humans and elephants in the central African forests. Mammal Review 26:67-80.  External resource


Branco, P. S., J. A. Merkle, R. M. Pringle, J. Pansu, A. B. Potter, A. Reynolds, M. Stalmans, and R. A. Long. 2019. Determinants of elephant foraging behavior in a coupled human-natural system: is brown the new green? Journal of Animal Ecology  External resource


Buchholtz, E. K., M. McDaniels, G. McCulloch, A. Songhurst, and A. Stronza. 2023. A mixed-methods assessment of human-elephant conflict in the Western Okavango Panhandle, Botswana. People and Nature.   Download

Buchholtz, E. K., L. Redmore, L. A. Fitzgerald, A. Stronza, A. Songhurst, and G. McCulloch. 2019. Temporal partitioning and overlapping use of a shared natural resource by people and elephants. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7.  Download


Canney, S. M. 2019. The Mali Elephant Project: protecting elephants amidst conflict and poverty. International Zoo Yearbook 53:174-188.  Download


Canney, S. M. 2021. Making space for nature: elephant conservation in Mali as a case study in sustainability. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 63:4-15.  Download

Chiyo, P. I., and E. P. Cochrane. 2005. Population structure and behaviour of crop-raiding elephants in Kibale National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 43:233-241.  External resource


Chiyo, P. I., E. P. Cochrane, L. Naughton, and G. I. Basuta. 2005. Temporal patterns of crop raiding by elephants: a response to changes in forage quality or crop availability? African Journal of Ecology 43:48-55.  External resource


Chiyo, P. I., P. C. Lee, C. J. Moss, E. A. Archie, J. A. Hollister-Smith, and S. C. Alberts. 2011. No risk, no gain: effects of crop raiding and genetic diversity on body size in male elephants. Behavioral Ecology 22:552-558.  External resource


Chiyo, P. I., C. J. Moss, and S. C. Alberts. 2012. The influence of life history milestones and association networks on crop-raiding behavior in male African elephants. Plos One 7:11.  Download


Chiyo, P. I., C. J. Moss, E. A. Archie, J. A. Hollister-Smith, and S. C. Alberts. 2011. Using molecular and observational techniques to estimate the number and raiding patterns of crop-raiding elephants. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:788-796.  Download


Denninger Snyder, K., and D. Rentsch. 2020. Rethinking assessment of success of mitigation strategies for elephant-induced crop damage. Conservation Biology  External resource


Di Minin, E., R. Slotow, C. Fink, H. Bauer, and C. Packer. 2021. A pan-African spatial assessment of human conflicts with lions and elephants. Nature Communications 12:2978.  Download

Djoko, I. B., R. B. Weladji, and P. Paré. 2022. Diurnality in the defensive behaviour of African honeybees Apis mellifera adansonii and implications for their potential efficacy in beehive fences. Oryx:1-7.  Download

Durant, S. M., M. S. Becker, S. Creel, S. Bashir, A. J. Dickman, R. C. Beudels-Jamar, L. Lichtenfeld, R. Hilborn, J. Wall, G. Wittemyer, L. Badamjav, S. Blake, L. Boitani, C. Breitenmoser, F. Broekhuis, D. Christianson, G. Cozzi, T. R. B. Davenport, J. Deutsch, P. Devillers, L. Dollar, S. Dolrenry, I. Douglas-Hamilton, E. Droge, E. FitzHerbert, C. Foley, L. Hazzah, J. G. C. Hopcraft, D. Ikanda, A. Jacobson, D. Joubert, M. J. Kelly, J. Milanzi, N. Mitchell, J. M'Soka, M. Msuha, T. Mweetwa, J. Nyahongo, E. Rosenblatt, P. Schuette, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A. R. E. Sinclair, M. R. Price, A. Zimmermann, and N. Pettorelli. 2015. Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 52:544-551.  Download


Gadd, M. E. 2005. Conservation outside of parks: attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environmental Conservation 32:50-63.  External resource


Graham, M. D., W. M. Adams, and G. N. Kahiro. 2012. Mobile phone communication in effective human-elephant conflict management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Oryx 46:137-144.  External resource


Graham, M. D., I. Douglas-Hamilton, W. M. Adams, and P. C. Lee. 2009. The movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaic. Animal Conservation 12:445-455.  External resource

Graham, M. D., B. Notter, W. M. Adams, P. C. Lee, and T. N. Ochieng. 2010. Patterns of crop-raiding by elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Laikipia, Kenya, and the management of human-elephant conflict. Systematics and Biodiversity 8:435-445.  External resource


Graham, M. D., and T. Ochieng. 2008. Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42:76-82.  External resource


Gross, E. 2019. Tackling routes to coexistence human-elephant conflict in sub-Saharan Africa.  Download

Gross, E. M., B. P. Lahkar, N. Subedi, V. R. Nyirenda, L. L. Lichtenfeld, and O. Jakoby. 2018. Seasonality, crop type and crop phenology influence crop damage by wildlife herbivores in Africa and Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation.  External resource


Gross, E. M., R. McRobb, and J. Gross. 2016. Cultivating alternative crops reduces crop losses due to African elephants. Journal of Pest Science 89:497-506.  External resource


Guerbois, C., E. Chapanda, and H. Fritz. 2012. Combining multi-scale socio-ecological approaches to understand the susceptibility of subsistence farmers to elephant crop raiding on the edge of a protected area. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:1149-1158.  Download


Gunn, J., D. Hawkins, R. F. W. Barnes, F. Mofulu, R. A. Grant, and G. W. Norton. 2014. The influence of lunar cycles on crop-raiding elephants; evidence for risk avoidance. African Journal of Ecology 52:129-137.  External resource


Hahn, N., A. Mwakatobe, J. Konuche, N. de Souza, J. Keyyu, M. Goss, A. Chang'a, S. Palminteri, E. Dinerstein, and D. Olson. 2017. Unmanned aerial vehicles mitigate human–elephant conflict on the borders of Tanzanian parks: a case study. Oryx 51:513-516.  External resource

Hahn, N. R., J. Wall, K. Denninger-Snyder, M. Goss, W. Sairowua, N. Mbise, A. B. Estes, S. Ndambuki, E. E. Mjingo, I. Douglas-Hamiliton, and G. Wittemyer. 2021. Risk perception and tolerance shape variation in agricultural use for a transboundary elephant population. Journal of Animal Ecology.  External resource

Hahn, N. R., J. Wall, K. Denninger-Snyder, W. Sairowua, M. Goss, S. Ndambuki, E. Eblate, N. Mbise, S. Kiambi, and G. Wittemyer. 2023. Staging behaviours identify spatial and temporal risk of human-wildlife conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology.   Download

Hill, C. M. 1998. Conflicting attitudes towards elephants around the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Environmental Conservation 25:244-250.  External resource


Hoare, R. 2000. African elephants and humans in conflict: the outlook for co-existence. Oryx 34:34-38.  External resource


Hoare, R. 2012. Lessons from 15 years of human-elephant conflict mitigation: management considerations involving biological, physical and governance issues in Africa. Pachyderm:60-74.  Download


Hoare, R. E. 2015. Lessons from 20 years of human–elephant conflict mitigation in Africa. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 20:289-295.  External resource


Hoare, R. E. 1999. Determinants of human-elephant conflict in a land-use mosaic. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:689-700.  Download


Hoare, R. E., and J. T. Du Toit. 1999. Coexistence between people and elephants in African savannas. Conservation Biology 13:633-639.  External resource


Jackson, T. R., S. Mosojane, S. M. Ferreira, and R. J. van Aarde. 2008. Solutions for elephant Loxodonta africana crop raiding in northern Botswana: moving away from symptomatic approaches. Oryx 42:83-91.  External resource


King, L. E., I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2011. Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49:431-439.  Download


King, L. E., A. Lawrence, I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2009. Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology 47:131-137.  External resource


Kinyanjui, M. W., N. R. Raja, E. J. Brennan, L. E. King, and L. N. Tiller. 2020. Local attitudes and perceived threats of human elephant conflict: a case study at Lake Jipe, Kenya. Pachyderm 61:120-130.  Download

Kyokuhaire, A. M., C. A. Chapman, P. A. Omeja, D. M. Tumusiime, B. Y. Abwoli, and M. J. Lawes. Mitigating crop raiding by forest elephants and baboons at Kibale National Park. African Journal of Ecology n/a.   External resource

La Grange, M., C. Matema, B. Nyamukure, and R. Hoare. 2022. The virtual fence dynamic: a breakthrough for low-cost and sustainable mitigation of human-elephant conflict in subsistence agriculture? Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Mackenzie, C. A., and P. Ahabyona. 2012. Elephants in the garden: financial and social costs of crop raiding. Ecological Economics 75:72-82.  External resource


Montero-Botey, M., and R. Perea. 2022. An increasing human-elephant conflict? Impact of African elephant on cultivated cashew trees. European Journal of Wildlife Research 69:5.   External resource

Montero-Botey, M., M. Soliño, R. Perea, and M. Martínez-Jauregui. 2021. Exploring rangers' preferences for community-based strategies to improve human-elephant coexistence in African natural corridors. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Montero Botey, M., M. Soliño, R. Perea, and M. Martínez-Jauregui. 2022. Let us give voice to local farmers: preferences for farm-based strategies to enhance human-elephant coexistence in Africa. Animals 12:1867.  Download

Mutinda, M., G. Chenge, F. Gakuya, M. Otiende, P. Omondi, S. Kasiki, R. C. Soriguer, and S. Alasaad. 2014. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation. Plos One 9:7.  Download


Naughton-Treves, L. 1998. Predicting patterns of crop damage by wildlife around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conservation Biology 12:156-168.  External resource


Naughton, L., R. Rose, and A. Treves. 1999. The social dimensions of human-elephant conflict in Africa: a literature review and case studies from Uganda and Cameroon. A Report to the African Elephant Specialist, Human-Elephant Conflict Task Force, of IUCN. Glands, Switzerland.  External resource


Ngama, S., J. Bindelle, J. R. Poulsen, J.-L. Hornick, A. Linden, L. Korte, J.-L. Doucet, and C. Vermeulen. 2019. Do topography and fruit presence influence occurrence and intensity of crop-raiding by forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis)? Plos One 14:e0213971.  Download


Nsonsi, F., J. C. Heymans, J. Diamouangana, F. B. Mavinga, and T. Breuer. 2018. Perceived human–elephant conflict and its impact for elephant conservation in northern Congo. African Journal of Ecology.  External resource


Nyumba, T. O., E. Kimongo Nankini, and N. Leader-Williams. 2021. Measuring the conservation attitudes of local communities towards the African elephant Loxodonta africana, a flagship species in the Mara ecosystem. Plos One 16:e0253234.  External resource

O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E., T. Rodwell, M. Rice, and L. A. Hart. 2000. Living with the modern conservation paradigm: can agricultural communities co-exist with elephants? A five-year case study in East Caprivi, Namibia. Biological Conservation 93:381-391.  External resource


Osborn, F. V. 2002. Capsicum oleoresin as an elephant repellent: field trials in the communal lands of Zimbabwe. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:674-677.  External resource


Osborn, F. V. 2004. Seasonal variation of feeding patterns and food selection by crop-raiding elephants in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology 42:322-327.  External resource


Osborn, F. V., and G. E. Parker. 2003. Towards an integrated approach for reducing the conflict between elephants and people: a review of current research. Oryx 37:80-84.  External resource


Osipova, L., M. M. Okello, S. J. Njumbi, S. Ngene, D. Western, M. W. Hayward, and N. Balkenhol. 2018. Fencing solves human-wildlife conflict locally but shifts problems elsewhere: a case study using functional connectivity modelling of the African elephant. Journal of Applied Ecology.  External resource


Parker, G. E., and F. V. Osborn. 2006. Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum spp. to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx 40:343-346.  External resource


Pittiglio, C., A. K. Skidmore, H. van Gils, M. K. McCall, and H. H. T. Prins. 2014. Smallholder farms as stepping stone corridors for crop-raiding elephant in Northern Tanzania: integration of Bayesian expert system and network simulator. Ambio 43:149-161.  External resource


Plotnik, J. M., and S. L. Jacobson. 2022. A “thinking animal” in conflict: studying wild elephant cognition in the shadow of anthropogenic change. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 46:101148.  External resource

Pozo, R. A., T. Coulson, G. McCulloch, A. Stronza, and A. Songhurst. 2017. Chilli-briquettes modify the temporal behaviour of elephants, but not their numbers. Oryx:1-9.  External resource


Pozo, R. A., J. J. Cusack, G. McCulloch, A. Stronza, A. Songhurst, and T. Coulson. 2018. Elephant space-use is not a good predictor of crop-damage. Biological Conservation 228:241-251.  External resource


Rakotonarivo, S. O., A. R. Bell, K. Abernethy, J. Minderman, A. B. Duthie, S. Redpath, A. Keane, H. Travers, S. Bourgeois, L.-L. Moukagni, J. J. Cusack, I. L. Jones, R. A. Pozo, and N. Bunnefeld. 2021. The role of incentive-based instruments and social equity in conservation conflict interventions. Ecology and Society 26.  Download

Redmore, L., I. Katholo, A. Sene-Harper, A. Songhurst, G. McCulloch, and A. Stronza. 2023. The village, the elephant, and the state: land access and vulnerability in rural Botswana. Human Ecology.   Download

Salerno, J., F. Stevens, A. Gaughan, T. Hilton, K. Bailey, T. Bowles, L. Cassidy, P. Mupeta-Muyamwa, D. Biggs, N. Pricope, A. W. Mosimane, L. M. Henry, M. Drake, A. Weaver, S. Kosmas, K. Woodward, N. Kolarik, and J. Hartter. 2021. Wildlife impacts and changing climate pose compounding threats to human food security. Current Biology.  External resource

Shaffer, L. J., K. K. Khadka, J. Van Den Hoek, and K. J. Naithani. 2019. Human-elephant conflict: a review of current management strategies and future directions. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6.  External resource


Sitati, N. W., and M. J. Walpole. 2006. Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human-elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx 40:279-286.  External resource


Sitati, N. W., M. J. Walpole, and N. Leader-Williams. 2005. Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:1175-1182.  Download


Sitati, N. W., M. J. Walpole, R. J. Smith, and N. Leader-Williams. 2003. Predicting spatial aspects of human-elephant conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology 40:667-677.  Download


Sitienei, A. J., G. Jiwen, and S. M. Ngene. 2014. Assessing the cost of living with elephants (Loxodonta africana) in areas adjacent to Meru National Park, Kenya. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60:323-330.  External resource


Songhurst, A., and T. Coulson. 2014. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding. Ecology and Evolution 4:582-593.  Download


Songhurst, A., G. McClloch, and T. Coulson. 2016. Finding pathways to human-elephant coexistence: a risky business. Oryx 50:713-720.  External resource


Tchamba, M. N. 1996. History and present status of the human elephant conflict in the Waza-Logone Region, Cameroon, west Africa. Biological Conservation 75:35-41.  External resource


Thouless, C. R. 1994. Conflict between humans and elephants on private land in northern Kenya. Oryx 28:119-127.  External resource


Tiller, L. N., T. Humle, R. Amin, N. J. Deere, B. O. Lago, N. Leader-Williams, F. K. Sinoni, N. Sitati, M. Walpole, and R. J. Smith. 2021. Changing seasonal, temporal and spatial crop-raiding trends over 15 years in a human-elephant conflict hotspot. Biological Conservation 254:108941.  External resource


Tiller, L. N., L. E. King, B. Okita-Ouma, F. Lala, F. Pope, I. Douglas-Hamilton, and C. R. Thouless. 2022. The behaviour and fate of translocated bull African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a novel environment. African Journal of Ecology.  External resource

Tiller, L. N., E. Oniba, G. Opira, E. J. Brennan, L. E. King, V. Ndombi, D. Wanjala, and M. R. Robertson. 2022. "Smelly" elephant repellent: assessing the efficacy of a novel olfactory approach to mitigating elephant crop raiding in Uganda and Kenya. Diversity 14.  Download

Vogel, S. M., D. Vasudev, J. O. Ogutu, P. Taek, E. Berti, V. R. Goswami, M. Kaelo, R. Buitenwerf, M. Munk, W. Li, J. Wall, D. Chala, I. Amoke, A. Odingo, and J.-C. Svenning. 2023. Identifying sustainable coexistence potential by integrating willingness-to-coexist with habitat suitability assessments. Biological Conservation 279:109935.   Download

Vogel, S. M., A. C. Songhurst, G. McCulloch, and A. Stronza. 2022. Understanding farmers' reasons behind mitigation decisions is key in supporting their coexistence with wildlife. People and Nature.  Download

Von Gerhardt, K., A. Van Niekerk, M. Kidd, M. Samways, and J. Hanks. 2014. The role of elephant Loxodonta africana pathways as a spatial variable in crop-raiding location. Oryx 48:436-444.  External resource

Von Hagen, L., C. A. LaDue, and B. A. Schulte. 2023. Elephant scar prevalence in the Kasigau Wildlife Corridor, Kenya: echoes of human-elephant conflict. Animals 13:605.   Download

Books and book chapters

Breuer, T., and S. Ngama. 2020. Human and forest elephants in Central Africa: conflict and co-existence in and around protected C. Doumenge, F. Palla, and G.-L. Itsoua Madzous, editors. State of protected areas in Central Africa. OFAC-COMIFAC, Yaounde, Cameroon, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.  French   Download      English   Download

Knickerbocker, T. J., and J. Waithaka. 2005. People and elephants in the Shimba Hills, Kenya. Pages 224-238 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource


Naughton-Treves, L., J. L'Roe, A. L'Roe, and A. Treves. 2017. A long term comparison of local perceptions of crop loss to wildlife at Kibale National Park, Uganda: exploring consistency across individuals and C. M. Hill, A. D. Webber, and N. E. C. Priston, editors. Understanding conflicts about wildlife: a biosocial approach. Berghahn Books, New York.  External resource


Naughton-Treves, L., and A. Treves. 2005. Socio-ecological factors shaping local support for wildlife: crop-raiding by elephants and other wildlife in Africa. Pages 252-277 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource


Osborn, F. V., and C. M. Hill. 2005. Techniques to reduce crop loss: human and technical dimensions in Africa. Pages 72-85 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource


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