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Asian elephant

Asian elephant

Guidance Documents

Guide for implementing community-based electric fences for the effective mitigation of human-elephant conflict (2020). (Fernando, P) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Human-elephant conflict mitigation measures: lessons from Bangladesh (2016). (IUCN) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

A Manual for Human-Elephant Conflict Monitoring (2010). (Wildlife Conservation Society) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Living with elephants in Assam a handbook (2009). (Assam Haathi Project) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Review of human-elephant conflict mitigation measures practiced in South Asia (2008). (WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Guidelines on the better management practices for the mitigation and management of human-elephant conflict in and around oil-palm plantations in Indonesia and Malaysia, final draft (2005). (WWF-Malaysia) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download  

Key Papers

Bal, P., C. D. Nath, K. M. Nanaya, C. G. Kushalappa, and C. Garcia. 2011. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India. Environmental Management 47:789-801. External resource

Bandara, R., and C. Tisdell. 2003. Comparison of rural and urban attitudes to the conservation of Asian elephants in Sri Lanka: empirical evidence. Biological Conservation 110:327-342. External resource

Barua, M. 2010. Whose issue? Representations of human-elephant conflict in Indian and international media. Science Communication 32:55-75. External resource

Barua, M., S. A. Bhagwat, and S. Jadhav. 2013. The hidden dimensions of human-wildlife conflict: health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs. Biological Conservation 157:309-316. External resource

Chen, S., Z. F. Yi, A. Campos-Arceiz, M. Y. Chen, and E. L. Webb. 2013. Developing a spatially-explicit, sustainable and risk-based insurance scheme to mitigate human-wildlife conflict. Biological Conservation 168:31-39. External resource

Chen, Y., J. Marino, Q. Tao, C. D. Sullivan, K. Shi, and D. W. Macdonald. 2016. Predicting hotspots of human-elephant conflict to inform mitigation strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Plos One 11:15. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Choudhury, A. 2004. Human–elephant conflicts in Northeast India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9:261-270. External resource

Davies, T. E., S. Wilson, N. Hazarika, J. Chakrabarty, D. Das, D. J. Hodgson, and A. Zimmermann. 2011. Effectiveness of intervention methods against crop-raiding elephants. Conservation Letters 4:346-354. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Denninger Snyder, K., and D. Rentsch. 2020. Rethinking assessment of success of mitigation strategies for elephant-induced crop damage. Conservation Biology External resource

Dror, S., F. Harich, O. Duangphakdee, T. Savini, Á. Pogány, J. Roberts, J. Geheran, and A. C. Treydte. 2020. Are Asian elephants afraid of honeybees? Experimental studies in northern Thailand. Mammalian Biology. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Fernando, P., P. Leimgruber, T. Prasad, and J. Pastorini. 2012. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant? Plos One 7:9. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Fernando, P., Wikramanayake, E., Weerakoon, D., Jayasinghe, L. K. A., Gunawardene, M. and Janaka, H. K. 2005. Perceptions and patterns of human-elephant conflict in old and new settlements in Sri Lanka: insights for mitigation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:2465-2481. External resource

Goswami, V. R., K. Medhi, J. D. Nichols, and M. K. Oli. 2015. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models. Conservation Biology 29:1100-1110. External resource

Goswami, V. R., and D. Vasudev. 2017. Triage of conservation needs: the juxtaposition of conflict mitigation and connectivity considerations in heterogeneous, human-dominated landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 4. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Goswami, V. R., D. Vasudev, and M. K. Oli. 2014. The importance of conflict-induced mortality for conservation planning in areas of human-elephant co-occurrence. Biological Conservation 176:191-198. External resource

Gross, E. M., B. P. Lahkar, N. Subedi, V. R. Nyirenda, L. L. Lichtenfeld, and O. Jakoby. 2018. Seasonality, crop type and crop phenology influence crop damage by wildlife herbivores in Africa and Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation. External resource

Gubbi, S. 2012. Patterns and correlates of human-elephant conflict around a south Indian reserve. Biological Conservation 148:88-95. External resource

Gubbi, S., M. H. Swaminath, H. C. Poornesha, R. Bhat, and R. Raghunath. 2014. An elephantine challenge: human-elephant conflict distribution in the largest Asian elephant population, southern India. Biodiversity and Conservation 23:633-647. External resource

Gunaryadi, D., Sugiyo, and S. Hedges. 2017. Community-based human–elephant conflict mitigation: the value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods. Plos One 12:e0173742. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Hedges, S., and D. Giunaryadi. 2010. Reducing human-elephant conflict: do chillies help deter elephants from entering crop fields? Oryx 44:139-146. External resource

Jadhav, S., and M. Barua. 2012. The elephant vanishes: impact of human-elephant conflict on people's wellbeing. Health & Place 18:1356-1365. External resource

Karanth, K. K., A. M. Gopalaswamy, P. K. Prasad, and S. Dasgupta. 2013. Patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation: insights from Western Ghats protected areas. Biological Conservation 166:175-185. External resource

Karanth, K. K., and S. Kudalkar. 2017. History, location, and species matter: insights for human–wildlife conflict mitigation from India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 22:331-346. External resource

Neupane, D., S. Kunwar, A. K. Bohara, T. S. Risch, and R. L. Johnson. 2017. Willingness to pay for mitigating human-elephant conflict by residents of Nepal. Journal for Nature Conservation 36:65-76. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Nyhus, P., and R. Tilson. 2004. Agroforestry, elephants, and tigers: balancing conservation theory and practice in human-dominated landscapes of Southeast Asia. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 104:87-97. External resource

Nyhus, P. J., R. Tilson, and Sumianto. 2000. Crop-raiding elephants and conservation implications at Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 34:262-274. External resource

Ogra, M. 2009. Attitudes toward resolution of human-wildlife conflict among forest-dependent agriculturalists near Rajaji National Park, India. Human Ecology 37:161-177. External resource

Ogra, M., and R. Badola. 2008. Compensating human-wildlife conflict in protected area communities: ground-level perspectives from Uttarakhand, India. Human Ecology 36:717-729. External resource

Ogra, M. V. 2008. Human-wildlife conflict and gender in protected area borderlands: a case study of costs, perceptions, and vulnerabilities from Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal), India. Geoforum 39:1408-1422. External resource

Pant, G., M. Dhakal, N. M. B. Pradhan, F. Leverington, and M. Hockings. 2016. Nature and extent of human-elephant Elephas maximus conflict in central Nepal. Oryx 50:724-731. External resource

Pokharel, S. S., B. Singh, P. B. Seshagiri, and R. Sukumar. 2018. Lower levels of glucocorticoids in crop-raiders: diet quality as a potential ‘pacifier’ against stress in free-ranging Asian elephants in a human-production habitat. Animal Conservation. External resource

Saif, O., R. Kansky, A. Palash, M. Kidd, and A. T. Knight. Costs of coexistence: understanding the drivers of tolerance towards Asian elephants Elephas maximus in rural Bangladesh. Oryx:1-9. External resource

Shaffer, L. J., K. K. Khadka, J. Van Den Hoek, and K. J. Naithani. 2019. Human-elephant conflict: a review of current management strategies and future directions. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6. External resource

Sukumar, R. 1990. Ecology of the Asian elephant in Southern India .II. Feeding-habits and crop raiding patterns. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:33-53. External resource

Sukumar, R. 1991. The management of large mammals in relation to male strategies and conflict with people. Biological Conservation 55:93-102. External resource

Sukumar, R., and M. Gadgil. 1988. Male-female differences in foraging on crops by Asian elephants. Animal Behaviour 36:1233-1235. External resource

Thuppil, V., and R. G. Coss. 2016. Playback of felid growls mitigates crop-raiding by elephants Elephas maximus in southern India. Oryx 50:329-335. External resource

Venkataraman, A. B., R. Saandeep, N. Baskaran, M. Roy, A. Madhivanan, and R. Sukumar. 2005. Using satellite telemetry to mitigate elephant-human conflict: an experiment in northern West Bengal, India. Current Science 88:1827-1831. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Webber, C. E., T. Sereivathana, M. P. Maltby, and P. C. Lee. 2011. Elephant crop-raiding and human-elephant conflict in Cambodia: crop selection and seasonal timings of raids. Oryx 45:243-251. External resource

Wilson, S., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, and A. Zimmermann. 2015. Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of human-elephant conflict in Assam, India. Oryx 49:140-149. External resource

Zimmermann, A., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, S. Wilson, J. Chakrabarty, B. Hazarika, and D. Das. 2009. Community-based human-elephant conflict management in Assam. Gajah 30:34-40. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download


IUCN SSC Asian Elephant Specialist Group