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Behaviour change & social marketing


Guidance Documents

Behaviour change for conservation online course (2020). (TRAFFIC)  External resource


Behavior change for nature: a behavioral science toolkit for practitioners (2019). (Rare and The Behavioural Insights Team)  External resource


Global consensus on social marketing principles, concepts and techniques (2017). (European Social Marketing Association)  Download


Tackling environmental problems with the help of behavioural insights (2017). (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)  External resource


The principles of pride: the science behind the mascots (2013). (Butler, P., Green, K. & Galvin, D.)  Download


Social marketing: influencing behaviors for good quick reference guide (2012). (Lee, N. & Kotler, P.)   External resource


Big pocket guide to using social marketing for behaviour change (2011). (National Social Marketing Centre)  External resource


Tools of engagement: a toolkit for engaging people in conservation (2011). (National Audubon Society)  Download

Key Papers

Baruch-Mordo, S., S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and J. Broderick. 2009. A tool box half full: how social science can help solve human–wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14:219-223.  External resource

Brennan, L., and W. Binney. 2010. Fear, guilt, and shame appeals in social marketing. Journal of business Research 63:140-146.  External resource


Byerly, H., A. Balmford, P. J. Ferraro, C. Hammond Wagner, E. Palchak, S. Polasky, T. H. Ricketts, A. J. Schwartz, and B. Fisher. 2018. Nudging pro-environmental behavior: evidence and opportunities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16:159-168.  External resource


Cinner, J. 2018. How behavioral science can help conservation. Science 362:889.  External resource


Corner, A., and A. Randall. 2011. Selling climate change? The limitations of social marketing as a strategy for climate change public engagement. Global Environmental Change 21:1005-1014.  External resource


Douglas, L. R., and D. Veríssimo. 2013. Flagships or battleships: deconstructing the relationship between social conflict and conservation flagship species. Environment and Society 4:98-116.  External resource


Duthie, E., D. Veríssimo, A. Keane, and A. T. Knight. 2017. The effectiveness of celebrities in conservation marketing. Plos One 12:e0180027.  Download


Freeman, S., B. D. Taff, Z. D. Miller, J. A. Benfield, and P. Newman. 2021. Mutualism wildlife value orientations predict support for messages about distance-related wildlife conflict. Environmental Management.  External resource


Freeman, S., B. Lawhon, P. Newman, and B. Derrick Taff. 2021. Food storage on the Appalachian trail: a theory of planned behavior approach to understanding backpacker bear canister use. Journal of Interpretation Research 26:73-95.  External resource

Lu, H., W. F. Siemer, M. S. Baumer, D. J. Decker, and A. Gulde. 2016. Effects of message framing and past experience on intentions to prevent human–coyote conflicts. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 21:506-521.  External resource


McKenzie-Mohr, D. 2000. Fostering sustainable behavior through community-based social marketing. American psychologist 55:531-537  External resource


McKenzie-Mohr, D. 2000. New ways to promote proenvironmental behavior: promoting sustainable behavior: an introduction to community-based social marketing. Journal of Social Issues 56:543-554.  External resource


McKenzie-Mohr, D., and P. W. Schultz. 2014. Choosing effective behavior change tools. Social Marketing Quarterly 20:35-46.  External resource


Nesbitt, H. K., A. L. Metcalf, A. A. Lubeck, E. C. Metcalf, C. Beckman, A. P. Smith, and T. M. Cummins. 2021. Collective factors reinforce individual contributions to human-wildlife coexistence. The Journal of Wildlife Management.  External resource

Nilsson, D., G. Baxter, J. R. A. Butler, and C. A. McAlpine. 2016. How do community-based conservation programs in developing countries change human behaviour? A realist synthesis. Biological Conservation 200:93-103.  External resource


Nilsson, D., K. Fielding, and A. Dean. 2019. Achieving conservation impact by shifting focus from human attitudes to behaviors. Conservation Biology  External resource


Perry, L. R., E. A. Macdonald, T. Moorhouse, P. J. Johnson, A. J. Loveridge, and D. W. Macdonald. 2021. Social referents and normative standards affect perceptions of livestock management behaviors. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-16.  External resource

Perry, L. R., T. P. Moorhouse, L. Sibanda, S. L. Sompeta, D. W. Macdonald, and A. J. Loveridge. 2020. Everyone is normal: consistent livestock management norms and demographic clusters in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e313.  Download

Rothschild, M. L. 1999. Carrots, sticks, and promises: a conceptual framework for the management of public health and social issue behaviors. Journal of Marketing 63:24-37.  External resource

St John, F. A. V., G. Edwards-Jones, and J. P. G. Jones. 2010. Conservation and human behaviour: lessons from social psychology. Wildlife Research 37:658-667.  External resource

Veríssimo, D. 2013. Influencing human behaviour: an underutilised tool for biodiversity management. Conservation Evidence 10:29-31.  Download

Books and book chapters

McKenzie-Mohr, D. 2011. Fostering sustainable behavior: an introduction to community-based social marketing (Third Edition). New Society Publishers.  External resource


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