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Livestock guarding

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Guidance Documents

Livestock guarding dogs - cultural heritage icons with a new relevance for mitigating conservation conflicts (2015). (Linnell, J.D.C. and Lescureux, N.)  External resource


Livestock guarding dog program: a farmers manual (2014). (Cheetah Conservation Botswana)  Download

Key Papers

Akyazi, I., Y. Z. Ograk, E. Eraslan, M. Arslan, and E. Matur. Livestock guarding behaviour of Kangal dogs in their native habitat. Applied Animal Behaviour Science.  External resource


Allen, B. L., L. R. Allen, G. Ballard, M. Drouilly, P. J. S. Fleming, J. O. Hampton, M. W. Hayward, G. I. H. Kerley, P. D. Meek, L. Minnie, M. J. O'Riain, D. M. Parker, and M. J. Somers. 2019. Animal welfare considerations for using large carnivores and guardian dogs as vertebrate biocontrol tools against other animals. Biological Conservation 232:258-270.  External resource

Allen, L. R., N. Stewart-Moore, D. Byrne, and B. L. Allen. 2017. Guardian dogs protect sheep by guarding sheep, not by establishing territories and excluding predators. Animal Production Science 57:1118-1127.  External resource


Andelt, W. 2004. Use of livestock guarding animals to reduce predation on livestock.  Download


Andelt, W. F. 1992. Effectiveness of livestock guarding dogs for reducing predation on domestic sheep. Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006) 20:55-62.  External resource


Andelt, W. F. 1995. Livestock guard dogs, llamas and donkeys for reducing livestock losses to predators. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.  Download


Andelt, W. F., and S. N. Hopper. 2000. Livestock guard dogs reduce predation on domestic sheep in Colorado. Journal of Range Management 53:259-267.  External resource


Aslam, A., C. O'Flaherty, L. Marker, and N. Rooney. 2022. Factors affecting livestock guarding dogs’ proximity to their herd and association with perceived effectiveness. Journal of Veterinary Behavior.   External resource

Bangs, E. E., and J. Shivik. 2001. Managing wolf conflicts with livestock in the Northwest United States. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 3:2-5.  Download


Black, H. L., and J. S. Green. 1985. Navajo use of mixed-breed dogs for management of predators. Journal of Range Management 38:11-15.  External resource


Bourne, J. 1994. Protecting livestock with guard donkeys. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development.  Download


Cavalcanti, S. M. C., and F. F. Knowlton. 1998. Evaluation of physical and behavioral traits of llamas associated with aggressiveness toward sheep-threatening canids. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61:143-158.  External resource


Coppinger, R., J. Lorenz, J. Glendinning, and P. Pinardi. 1983. Attentiveness of guarding dogs for reducing predation on domestic sheep. Journal of Range Management 36:275-279.  External resource


Eklund, A., J. V. López-Bao, M. Tourani, G. Chapron, and J. Frank. 2017. Limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. Scientific Reports 7:2097.  Download


Gehring, T. M., K. C. VerCauteren, and J.-M. Landry. 2010. Livestock protection dogs in the 21st century: is an ancient tool relevant to modern conservation challenges? Bioscience 60:299-308.  Download


Gehring, T. M., K. C. VerCauteren, M. L. Provost, and A. C. Cellar. 2010. Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms. Wildlife Research 37:715-721.  External resource


Gingold, G., Y. Yom-Tov, N. Kronfeld-Schor, and E. Geffen. 2009. Effect of guard dogs on the behavior and reproduction of gazelles in cattle enclosures on the Golan Heights. Animal Conservation 12:155-162.  External resource


González, A., A. Novaro, M. Funes, O. Pailacura, M. J. Bolgeri, and S. Walker. 2012. Mixed-breed guarding dogs reduce conflict between goat herders and native carnivores in Patagonia. Human–Wildlife Interactions 6:14.  Download


Green, J. S., and R. A. Woodruff. 1988. Breed comparisons and characteristics of use of livestock guarding dogs. Journal of Range Management:249-251.  External resource


Green, J. S., R. A. Woodruff, and T. T. Tueller. 1984. Livestock-guarding dogs for predator control: costs, benefits, and practicality. Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006) 12:44-50.  External resource


Hansen, I., and M. Bakken. 1999. Livestock-guarding dogs in Norway: part I. Interactions. Journal of Range Management:2-6.  External resource


Hansen, I., and M. E. Smith. 1999. Livestock-guarding dogs in Norway Part II: Different working regimes. Journal of Range Management:312-316.  External resource


Horgan, J. E., L. K. Van Der Weyde, J. Comley, R. Klein, and D. M. Parker. 2021. Every dog has its day: indigenous Tswana dogs are more practical livestock guardians in an arid African savanna compared with their expatriate cousins. Journal of Vertebrate Biology 69:1-16.  External resource

Khorozyan, I., M. Soofi, M. Soufi, A. K. Hamidi, A. Ghoddousi, and M. Waltert. 2017. Effects of shepherds and dogs on livestock depredation by leopards (Panthera pardus) in north-eastern Iran. Peerj 5:e3049.  Download


Kinka, D., J. T. Schultz, and J. K. Young. 2021. Wildlife responses to livestock guard dogs and domestic sheep on open range. Global Ecology and Conservation:e01823.  Download

Landry, J.-M., P. Olsson, A. Siegenthaler, P. Jackson, and A. Farrell. 1999. The use of guard dogs in the Swiss Alps: a first analysis. KORA, Koordinierte Forschungsprojekte zur Erhaltung und zum Management der Raubtiere in der Schweiz.  External resource


Landry, J. 2000. Testing livestock guard donkeys in the Swiss Alps. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 1:6-7.  Download


Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2014. Warring brothers: the complex interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) in a conservation context. Biological Conservation 171:232-245.  External resource


Lieb, Z., B. Tumurbaatar, B. Elfström, and J. Bull. 2021. Impact of livestock guardian dogs on livestock predation in rural Mongolia. Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e509.  Download

Lorenz, J. R. 1985. Introducing livestock-guarding dogs.  Download


Lorenz, J. R., R. P. Coppinger, and M. R. Sutherland. 1986. Causes and economic effects of mortality in livestock guarding dogs. Journal of Range Management 39:293-295.  External resource


Marker, L. 2000. Donkeys protecting livestock in Namibia. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 2:7-8.  Download


Marker, L., A. Dickman, and M. Schumann. 2005. Using livestock guarding dogs as a conflict resolution strategy on Namibian farms. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 8:28-32.  Download


Marker, L., L. Pfeiffer, A. Siyaya, P. Seitz, G. Nikanor, B. Fry, C. O'Flaherty, and S. Verschueren. 2021. Twenty-five years of livestock guarding dog use across Namibian farmlands. Journal of Vertebrate Biology 69.  Download

Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2005. Perceived effectiveness of livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian farms. Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:329-336.  External resource


Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2005. Survivorship and causes of mortality for livestock-guarding dogs on Namibian rangeland. Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:337-343.  External resource


McConnell, I., L. Marker, and N. Rooney. 2022. Preliminary investigation into personality and effectiveness of livestock guarding dogs in Namibia. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 48:11-19.  External resource

McManus, J. S., A. J. Dickman, D. Gaynor, B. H. Smuts, and D. W. Macdonald. 2015. Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human-wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms. Oryx 49:687-695.  External resource


Meadows, L. E., and F. F. Knowlton. 2000. Efficacy of guard llamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep. Wildlife Society Bulletin:614-622.  External resource


Ogada, M. O., R. Woodroffe, N. O. Oguge, and L. G. Frank. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology 17:1521-1530.  External resource


Potgieter, G. C., G. I. H. Kerley, and L. L. Marker. 2016. More bark than bite? The role of livestock guarding dogs in predator control on Namibian farmlands. Oryx 50:514-522.  External resource


Potgieter, G. C., L. L. Marker, N. L. Avenant, and G. I. Kerley. 2013. Why Namibian farmers are satisfied with the performance of their livestock guarding dogs. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:403-415.  External resource


Rigg, R. 2001. Livestock guarding dogs: their current use world wide. Canid Specialist Group.  Download


Rigg, R., S. Findo, M. Wechselberger, M. L. Gorman, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and D. W. Macdonald. 2011. Mitigating carnivore-livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45:272-280.  External resource


Rust, N. A., K. M. Whitehouse-Tedd, and D. C. MacMillan. 2013. Perceived efficacy of livestock-guarding dogs in South Africa: implications for cheetah conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 37:690-697.  External resource


Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation: I. Guardian animals. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:279-290.  External resource


Soofi, M., M. Soufi, A. Royle, M. Waltert, and I. Khorozyan. 2022. Numbers and presence of guarding dogs affect wolf and leopard predation on livestock in northeastern Iran. Basic and Applied Ecology.  Download

Stone, S. A., S. W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P. M. Haswell, F. Najera, B. S. Bean, and D. J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98:33-44.  Download


Treves, A., and K. U. Karanth. 2003. Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17:1491-1499.  External resource

Urbigkit, C., and J. Urbigkit. 2010. A review: the use of livestock protection dogs in association with large carnivores in the Rocky Mountains. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 25.  External resource

van Bommel, L., and C. N. Johnson. 2014. Where do livestock guardian dogs go? Movement patterns of free-ranging Maremma sheepdogs. Plos One 9:e111444.  Download

van Bommel, L., and C. N. Johnson. 2015. How guardian dogs protect livestock from predators: territorial enforcement by Maremma sheepdogs. Wildlife Research 41:662-672.  External resource

van Eeden, L. M., A. Eklund, J. R. B. Miller, J. V. López-Bao, G. Chapron, M. R. Cejtin, M. S. Crowther, C. R. Dickman, J. Frank, M. Krofel, D. W. Macdonald, J. McManus, T. K. Meyer, A. D. Middleton, T. M. Newsome, W. J. Ripple, E. G. Ritchie, O. J. Schmitz, K. J. Stoner, M. Tourani, and A. Treves. 2018. Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLOS Biology 16:e2005577.  Download

VerCauteren, K. C., M. J. Lavelle, T. M. Gehring, and J.-M. Landry. 2012. Cow dogs: use of livestock protection dogs for reducing predation and transmission of pathogens from wildlife to cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 140:128-136.  External resource

Zingaro, M., V. Salvatori, L. Vielmi, and L. Boitani. 2018. Are the livestock guarding dogs where they are supposed to be? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 198:89-94.  External resource

Books and book chapters

Breitenmoser, U., C. Angst, J.-M. Landry, C. Breitenmoser-Würsten, J. D. C. Linnell, and J.-M. Weber. 2005. Non-lethal techniques for reducing depredation. Pages 49-71 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource

Coppinger, R., and R. Schneider. 1995. Evolution of working dogs. Pages 21-47 in J. Serpell, editor. The domestic dog: its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  External resource


Dickman, A., G. Potgieter, J. Horgan, K. Stoner, R. Klein, J. McManus, and L. Marker. 2018. Use of livestock guarding dogs to reduce human-cheetah conflict. Pages 209-221 in P. J. Nyhus, L. Marker, L. K. Boast, and A. Schmidt-Küntzel, editors. Cheetahs: biology and conservation. Academic Press.  External resource

Linnell, J. D., J. Odden, and A. Mertens. 2012. Mitigation methods for conflicts associated with carnivore depredation on livestock. Carnivore ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques:314-332.  External resource



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