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Guidance Documents

The predator safe livestock guide: an introduction to protecting livestock and deterring predators (2017). (Cheetah Conservation Botswana)  Download

Safely handling situations when leopards enter human dense areas (2016). (Nature Conservation Foundation)  Download

Human-leopard conflict management guidelines (2007). (Athreya, V.R. and Belsare, A.V.)

Hindi  Download     Marathi  Download     English  Download

Key Papers

Abade, L., J. Cusack, R. J. Moll, P. Strampelli, A. J. Dickman, D. W. Macdonald, and R. A. Montgomery. 2018. Spatial variation in leopard (Panthera pardus) site use across a gradient of anthropogenic pressure in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape. Plos One 13:e0204370.  Download

Akrim, F., T. Mahmood, J. L. Belant, M. S. Nadeem, S. Qasim, I.-U.-D. Zangi, and M. A. Asadi. 2021. Livestock depredations by leopards in Pir Lasura National Park, Pakistan: characteristics, control and costs. Wildlife Biology 2021.  Download

Athreya, V., M. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, and K. U. Karanth. 2011. Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India. Conservation Biology 25:133-141.  External resource


Athreya, V., M. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy, and K. U. Karanth. 2016. A cat among the dogs: leopard Panthera pardus diet in a human-dominated landscape in western Maharashtra, India. Oryx 50:156-162.  External resource


Athreya, V., M. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy, and U. Karanth. 2013. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. Plos One 8:e57872.  Download


Athreya, V., S. Pimpale, A. S. Borkar, N. Surve, S. Chakravarty, M. Ghosalkar, A. Patwardhan, and J. Linnell, D.C. 2018. Monsters or Gods? Narratives of large cat worship in western India. Cat News 67:23-26.  External resource


Athreya, V., A. Srivathsa, M. Puri, K. K. Karanth, N. S. Kumar, and K. U. Karanth. 2015. Spotted in the news: using media reports to examine leopard distribution, depredation, and management practices outside protected areas in southern India. Plos One 10:e0142647.  Download


Athreya, V. R., S. S. Thakur, C. Sujoy, and A. V. Belsare. 2007. Leopards in human-dominated areas: a spillover from sustained translocations into nearby forests? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 104:45-50.  External resource


Babrgir, S., M. S. Farhadinia, and E. M. Moqanaki. 2017. Socio-economic consequences of cattle predation by the Endangered Persian leopard Panthera pardus saxicolor in a Caucasian conflict hotspot, northern Iran. Oryx 51:124-130.  External resource


Balme, G. A., R. Slotow, and L. T. B. Hunter. 2009. Impact of conservation interventions on the dynamics and persistence of a persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus) population. Biological Conservation 142:2681-2690.  External resource


Banasiak, N. M., M. W. Hayward, and G. I. H. Kerley. 2021. Emerging human–carnivore conflict following large carnivore reintroductions highlights the need to lift baselines. African Journal of Wildlife Research 51.  External resource

Bhatia, S., V. Athreya, R. Grenyer, and D. W. Macdonald. 2013. Understanding the role of representations of human–leopard conflict in Mumbai through media‐content analysis. Conservation Biology 27:588-594.  External resource


Bhattacharjee, A., and N. Parthasarathy. 2013. Coexisting with large carnivores: a case study from western Duars, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:20-31.  External resource

Bombieri, G., V. Penteriani, K. Almasieh, H. Ambarlı, M. R. Ashrafzadeh, C. S. Das, N. Dharaiya, R. Hoogesteijn, A. Hoogesteijn, D. Ikanda, W. Jędrzejewski, M. Kaboli, A. Kirilyuk, A. K. Jangid, R. K. Sharma, H. Kushnir, B. R. Lamichhane, A. Mohammadi, O. Monroy-Vilchis, J. M. Mukeka, I. Nikolaev, O. Ohrens, C. Packer, P. Pedrini, S. Ratnayeke, I. Seryodkin, T. Sharp, H. S. Palei, T. Smith, A. Subedi, F. Tortato, K. Yamazaki, and M. d. M. Delgado. 2023. A worldwide perspective on large carnivore attacks on humans. PLOS Biology 21:e3001946.   Download

Boronyak, L., B. Jacobs, A. Wallach, J. McManus, S. Stone, S. Stevenson, B. Smuts, and H. Zaranek. 2021. Pathways towards coexistence with large carnivores in production systems. Agriculture and Human Values.  External resource

Chase Grey, J. N., S. Bell, and R. A. Hill. 2017. Leopard diets and landowner perceptions of human wildlife conflict in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Journal for Nature Conservation 37:56-65.  External resource


Constant, N. L., S. Bell, and R. A. Hill. 2015. The impacts, characterisation and management of human–leopard conflict in a multi-use land system in South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:2967-2989.  Download

Corcoran, W., and B. Fisher. 2021. Life with big cats: local perceptions of big cat species. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Dar, N. I., R. A. Minhas, Q. Zaman, and M. Linkie. 2009. Predicting the patterns, perceptions and causes of human-carnivore conflict in and around Machiara National Park, Pakistan. Biological Conservation 142:2076-2082.  External resource

Dhanwatey, H. S., J. C. Crawford, L. A. S. Abade, P. H. Dhanwatey, C. K. Nielsen, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2013. Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx 47:221-227.  External resource


Dheer, A., E. Davidian, M. H. Jacobs, J. Ndorosa, T. M. Straka, and O. P. Höner. 2021. Emotions and cultural importance predict the acceptance of large carnivore management strategies by Maasai pastoralists. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Dickman, A. J., L. Hazzah, C. Carbone, and S. M. Durant. 2014. Carnivores, culture and 'contagious conflict': multiple factors influence perceived problems with carnivores in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape. Biological Conservation 178:19-27.  External resource

Durant, S. M., A. Marino, J. D. C. Linnell, A. Oriol-Cotterill, S. Dloniak, S. Dolrenry, P. Funston, R. J. Groom, L. Hanssen, J. Horgan, D. Ikanda, A. Ipavec, B. Kissui, L. Lichtenfeld, J. W. McNutt, N. Mitchell, E. Naro, A. Samna, and G. Yirga. 2022. Fostering coexistence between people and large carnivores in Africa: using a theory of change to identify pathways to impact and their underlying assumptions. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Fonturbel, F. E., and J. A. Simonetti. 2011. Translocations and human-carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17:217-224.  Download


Gebresenbet, F., B. Baraki, G. Yirga, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and H. Bauer. 2018. A culture of tolerance: coexisting with large carnivores in the Kafa Highlands, Ethiopia. Oryx 52:751-760.  External resource


Ghosal, S., V. R. Athreya, J. D. C. Linnell, and P. O. Vedeld. 2013. An ontological crisis? A review of large felid conservation in India. Biodiversity and Conservation 22:2665-2681.  External resource


Ghosal, S., and D. J. Kjosavik. 2015. Living with leopards: negotiating morality and modernity in western India. Society & Natural Resources 28:1092-1107.  External resource


Gubbi, S., A. Kolekar, and V. Kumara. 2020. Policy to on-ground action: evaluating a conflict policy guideline for leopards in India. Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy 23:127-140.  External resource

Hathaway, R. S., A.-E. M. Bryant, M. M. Draheim, P. Vinod, S. Limaye, and V. Athreya. 2017. From fear to understanding: changes in media representations of leopard incidences after media awareness workshops in Mumbai, India. Journal of Urban Ecology 3  Download


Hoffmann, C. F., and R. A. Montgomery. 2022. Implications of taxonomic bias for human–carnivore conflict mitigation. Oryx:1-10.  Download

Hoffmann, C. F., N. W. Pilfold, K. A. Ruppert, A. Letoluai, L. Lenguya, I. Limo, and R. A. Montgomery. 2022. The integral nature of encounter rate in predicting livestock depredation risk. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Holland, K. K., L. R. Larson, and R. B. Powell. 2018. Characterizing conflict between humans and big cats Panthera spp: a systematic review of research trends and management opportunities. Plos One 13:e0203877.  Download


Holmern, T., J. Nyahongo, and E. Roskaft. 2007. Livestock loss caused by predators outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 135:518-526.  External resource


Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34.  External resource

Jansen, C., A. J. Leslie, B. Cristescu, K. J. Teichman, and Q. E. Martins. 2023. Leopards living at the farmland-protected area interface prefer wild prey but consume high biomass of livestock. African Journal of Ecology.   Download

Jhamvar-Shingote, R., and M. A. Schuett. 2013. The predators of Junnar: local peoples' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward leopards and leopard conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:32-44.  External resource


Kalyahe, M. M., H. Hofer, and M. L. East. 2022. Do anthropogenic sources of food increase livestock predation in the area surrounding Ruaha National Park? Environmental Conservation:1-9.  External resource

Khorozyan, I., A. Ghoddousi, M. Soofi, and M. Waltert. 2015. Big cats kill more livestock when wild prey reaches a minimum threshold. Biological Conservation 192:268-275.  External resource


Khorozyan, I., M. Soofi, A. K. Hamidi, A. Ghoddousi, and M. Waltert. 2015. Dissatisfaction with veterinary services is associated with leopard (Panthera pardus) predation on domestic animals. Plos One 10:e0129221.  Download


Khorozyan, I., M. Soofi, M. Soufi, A. K. Hamidi, A. Ghoddousi, and M. Waltert. 2017. Effects of shepherds and dogs on livestock depredation by leopards (Panthera pardus) in north-eastern Iran. Peerj 5:e3049.  Download


Kissui, B. M. 2008. Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation 11:422-432.  External resource


Kolowski, J. M., and K. E. Holekamp. 2006. Spatial, temporal, and physical characteristics of livestock depredations by large carnivores along a Kenyan reserve border. Biological Conservation 128:529-541.  External resource


Koziarski, A., B. Kissui, and C. Kiffner. 2016. Patterns and correlates of perceived conflict between humans and large carnivores in northern Tanzania. Biological Conservation 199:41-50.  External resource


Kshettry, A., S. Vaidyanathan, and V. Athreya. 2017. Leopard in a tea-cup: a study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India. Plos One 12:e0177013.  Download


Kshettry, A., S. Vaidyanathan, and V. Athreya. 2018. Diet selection of leopards (Panthera pardus) in a human-use landscape in North-Eastern India. Tropical Conservation Science 11:1-9.  Download


Lindsey, P. A., Havemann, C. P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A. E., Retief, T. A., Rhebergen, T. and Van der Waal, C. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands. Plos One 8:14.  Download


Liu, M., Y. Wang, F. Xia, H. Bu, Y. Liu, X. Shen, and S. Li. 2022. Free-ranging livestock altered the spatiotemporal behavior of the endangered North Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) and its prey and intensified human–leopard conflicts. Integrative Zoology.  External resource

Loveridge, A. J., T. Kuiper, R. H. Parry, L. Sibanda, J. H. Hunt, B. Stapelkamp, L. Sebele, and D. W. Macdonald. 2017. Bells, bomas and beefsteak: complex patterns of human-predator conflict at the wildlife-agropastoral interface in Zimbabwe. Peerj 5:e2898.  Download


Lucas, C., J. Abell, S. Bremner-Harrison, and K. Whitehouse-Tedd. 2022. Stakeholder perceptions of success in human-carnivore coexistence interventions. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

McManus, J., L. Faraut, V. Couldridge, J. van Deventer, I. Samuels, D. Cilliers, C. Devens, P. Vorster, and B. Smuts. 2022. Assessment of leopard translocations in South Africa. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Miller, J. R. B., Y. V. Jhala, and J. Jena. 2016. Livestock losses and hotspots of attack from tigers and leopards in Kanha Tiger Reserve, Central India. Regional Environmental Change 16:17-29.  External resource


Minnie, L., A. F. Boshoff, and G. I. H. Kerley. 2015. Vegetation type influences livestock predation by leopards: implications for conservation in agro-ecosystems. African Journal of Wildlife Research 45:204-214.  External resource


Naha, D., S. K. Dash, C. Kupferman, J. C. Beasley, and S. Sathyakumar. 2021. Movement behavior of a solitary large carnivore within a hotspot of human-wildlife conflicts in India. Scientific Reports 11:3862.  Download

Naha, D., S. Sathyakumar, and G. S. Rawat. 2018. Understanding drivers of human-leopard conflicts in the Indian Himalayan region: spatio-temporal patterns of conflicts and perception of local communities towards conserving large carnivores. Plos One 13:e0204528.  Download


Nair, R., Dhee, O. Patil, N. Surve, A. Andheria, J. D. C. Linnell, and V. Athreya. 2021. Sharing spaces and entanglements with big cats: the Warli and their Waghoba in Maharashtra, India. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

O’Bryan, C. J., A. R. Braczkowski, H. L. Beyer, N. H. Carter, J. E. M. Watson, and E. McDonald-Madden. 2018. The contribution of predators and scavengers to human well-being. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2:229-236.  External resource


Odden, M., Athreya, V., Rattan, S. and Linnell, J. D. C. 2014. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India. Plos One 9:e112044.  Download


Ogada, M. O., R. Woodroffe, N. O. Oguge, and L. G. Frank. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology 17:1521-1530.  External resource


Oommen, M. A. 2021. Beasts in the garden: human-wildlife coexistence in India's past and present. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2. Download

Parchizadeh, J., and J. L. Belant. 2021. Brown bear and Persian leopard attacks on humans in Iran. Plos One 16:e0255042.  Download

Powell, J., J. C. Axmacher, J. D. C. Linnell, and S. M. Durant. 2021. Diverse locations and a long history: historical context for urban leopards (Panthera pardus) in the early anthropocene from Seoul, Korea. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Power, R. J., L. Venter, M.-V. Botha, and P. Bartels. 2021. Repatriating leopards into novel landscapes of a South African province. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 2:e12046.  Download

Puls, S., K. J. Teichman, C. Jansen, M. J. O'Riain, and B. Cristescu. 2021. Activity patterns of leopards (Panthera pardus) and temporal overlap with their prey in an arid depredation hotspot of southern Africa. Journal of Arid Environments 187:104430.  External resource

Romanach, S. S., P. A. Lindsey, and R. Woodroffe. 2007. Determinants of attitudes towards predators in central Kenya and suggestions for increasing tolerance in livestock dominated landscapes. Oryx 41:185-195.  External resource


Rostro-Garcia, S., L. Tharchen, L. Abade, C. Astaras, S. A. Cushman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2016. Scale dependence of felid predation risk: identifying predictors of livestock kills by tiger and leopard in Bhutan. Landscape Ecology 31:1277-1298.  External resource


Sangay, T., and K. Vernes. 2008. Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores. Biological Conservation 141:1272-1282.  External resource


Schiess-Meier, M., S. Ramsauer, T. Gabanapelo, and B. Konig. 2007. Livestock predation - insights from problem animal control registers in Botswana. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1267-1274.  External resource

Shehzad, W., M. A. Nawaz, F. Pompanon, E. Coissac, T. Riaz, S. A. Shah, and P. Taberlet. 2015. Forest without prey: livestock sustain a leopard Panthera pardus population in Pakistan. Oryx 49:248-253.  External resource


Shivakumar, S., D. Carricondo-Sánchez, V. Athreya, M. Odden, S. P. Dhiman, S. Vaidyanathan, and K. K. Karanth. 2023. Examining leopard attacks: spatio-temporal clustering of human injuries and deaths in Western Himalayas, India. Frontiers in Conservation Science 4.   Download

Soofi, M., A. T. Qashqaei, M. Mousavi, E. Hadipour, M. Filla, B. H. Kiabi, B. Bleyhl, A. Ghoddousi, N. Balkenhol, A. Royle, C. R. Pavey, I. Khorozyan, and M. Waltert. 2022. Quantifying the relationship between prey density, livestock and illegal killing of leopards. Journal of Applied Ecology.  Download

Soofi, M., M. Soufi, A. Royle, M. Waltert, and I. Khorozyan. 2022. Numbers and presence of guarding dogs affect wolf and leopard predation on livestock in northeastern Iran. Basic and Applied Ecology.  Download

Uduman, A., S. Hagerman, E. Kroc, A. Watson, A. Kittle, and A. C. Burton. 2021. Attitudes towards the Sri Lankan leopard Panthera pardus kotiya in two rural communities. Oryx:1-9.  Download

Venumière-Lefebvre, C. C., S. W. Breck, and K. R. Crooks. 2022. A systematic map of human-carnivore coexistence. Biological Conservation 268:109515.  External resource

Vikas, M., V. Athreya, and S. Limaye. 2022. Changing a leopard's spots or how people spot leopards? Managing human – leopard interactions in urban India. World Development Perspectives:100431.  External resource

Weilenmann, M., M. Gusset, D. R. Mills, T. Gabanapelo, and M. Schiess-Meier. 2010. Is translocation of stock-raiding leopards into a protected area with resident conspecifics an effective management tool? Wildlife Research 37:702-707.  External resource

White, P. A., and B. Van Valkenburgh. 2022. Low-cost forensics reveal high rates of non-lethal snaring and shotgun injuries in Zambia's large carnivores. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.  Download

Wilkinson, C. E., J. S. Brashares, A. C. Bett, and M. Kelly. 2021. Examining drivers of divergence in recorded and perceived human-carnivore conflict hotspots by integrating participatory and ecological data. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Books and book chapters

Landy, F. 2017. Urban leopards are good cartographers: human-nonhuman and spatial conflicts at Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai. Pages 67-85 in A. Rademacher and K. Sivaramakrishnan, editors. Places of nature in ecologies of urbanism. Hong Kong University Press.  External resource


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