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Deterrents & repellents


Guidance Documents

Protecting Your Field - field guide (2019). (Ecoexist)  Download


Responding to human-black bear conflicts: a guide to non-lethal bear management techniques (2015). (Get Bear Smart Society)  External resource


Best practice guidelines for the prevention and mitigation of conflict between humans and great apes (2009). (Hockings, K., and Humle, T.)  Download

Key Papers

Adams, T. S. F., I. Mwezi, and N. R. Jordan. 2020. Panic at the disco: solar-powered strobe light barriers reduce field incursion by African elephants Loxodonta africana in Chobe District, Botswana. Oryx:1-8.  External resource


Breck, S. W., N. Lance, and P. Callahan. 2006. A shocking device for protection of concentrated food sources from black bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:23-26.  External resource


Campbell-Smith, G., R. Sembiring, and M. Linkie. 2012. Evaluating the effectiveness of human-orangutan conflict mitigation strategies in Sumatra. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:367-375.  External resource


Chelliah, K., G. Kannan, S. Kundu, N. Abilash, A. Madhusudan, N. Baskaran, and R. Sukumar. 2010. Testing the efficacy of a chilli-tobacco rope fence as a deterrent against crop-raiding elephants. Current Science 99:1239-1243.  External resource


Darrow, P. A., and J. A. Shivik. 2009. Bold, shy, and persistent: variable coyote response to light and sound stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116:82-87.  External resource


Davies, T. E., S. Wilson, N. Hazarika, J. Chakrabarty, D. Das, D. J. Hodgson, and A. Zimmermann. 2011. Effectiveness of intervention methods against crop-raiding elephants. Conservation Letters 4:346-354.  Download


Denninger Snyder, K., and D. Rentsch. 2020. Rethinking assessment of success of mitigation strategies for elephant-induced crop damage. Conservation Biology  External resource


Dieter, C. D., C. S. Warner, and C. Ren. 2014. Evaluation of foliar sprays to reduce crop damage by Canada geese. Human-Wildlife Interactions 8:139-149.  Download


Djoko, I. B., R. B. Weladji, and P. Paré. 2022. Diurnality in the defensive behaviour of African honeybees Apis mellifera adansonii and implications for their potential efficacy in beehive fences. Oryx:1-7.  Download

Dror, S., F. Harich, O. Duangphakdee, T. Savini, Á. Pogány, J. Roberts, J. Geheran, and A. C. Treydte. 2020. Are Asian elephants afraid of honeybees? Experimental studies in northern Thailand. Mammalian Biology.  Download


Eklund, A., J. V. López-Bao, M. Tourani, G. Chapron, and J. Frank. 2017. Limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. Scientific Reports 7:2097.  Download


González, L. M., F. G. D. Montoto, T. Mereck, J. Alves, J. Pereira, P. F. de Larrinoa, A. Maroto, L. Bolonio, and N. El-Kadhir. 2017. Preventing crop raiding by the vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in Guinea-Bissau. Oryx 51:222-229.
 External resource


Gotz, T., and V. M. Janik. 2016. Non-lethal management of carnivore predation: long-term tests with a startle reflex-based deterrence system on a fish farm. Animal Conservation 19:212-221.  Download


Graham, M. D., and T. Ochieng. 2008. Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42:76-82.  External resource

Hahn, N., A. Mwakatobe, J. Konuche, N. de Souza, J. Keyyu, M. Goss, A. Chang'a, S. Palminteri, E. Dinerstein, and D. Olson. 2017. Unmanned aerial vehicles mitigate human–elephant conflict on the borders of Tanzanian parks: a case study. Oryx 51:513-516.  External resource

Hall, K. J., and P. A. Fleming. 2021. In the spotlight: can lights be used to mitigate fox predation on a free-range piggery? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 242:105420.  External resource 


Hedges, S., and D. Giunaryadi. 2010. Reducing human-elephant conflict: do chillies help deter elephants from entering crop fields? Oryx 44:139-146.  External resource


Hill, C. M., and G. E. Wallace. 2012. Crop protection and conflict mitigation: reducing the costs of living alongside non-human primates. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:2569-2587.  External resource


Hoare, R. 2012. Lessons from 15 years of human-elephant conflict mitigation: management considerations involving biological, physical and governance issues in Africa. Pachyderm:60-74.  Download


Hsiao, S. S., C. Ross, C. M. Hill, and G. E. Wallace. 2013. Crop-raiding deterrents around Budongo Forest Reserve: an evaluation through farmer actions and perceptions. Oryx 47:569-577.  External resource


King, L. E., I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2011. Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49:431-439.  Download


King, L. E., A. Lawrence, I. Douglas-Hamilton, and F. Vollrath. 2009. Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology 47:131-137.  External resource


Laguna, E., P. Palencia, A. J. Carpio, J. Mateos-Aparicio, C. Herraiz, C. Notario, J. Vicente, V. Montoro, and P. Acevedo. 2022. Evaluation of a combined and portable light-ultrasound device with which to deter red deer. European Journal of Wildlife Research 68:50.  Download

Lance, N. J., S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik. 2010. Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus). Wildlife Research 37:708-714.  External resource


Mazur, R. L. 2010. Does aversive conditioning reduce human-black bear conflict? Journal of Wildlife Management 74:48-54.  External resource


Miller, J. R. B., K. J. Stoner, M. R. Cejtin, T. K. Meyer, A. D. Middleton, and O. J. Schmitz. 2016. Effectiveness of contemporary techniques for reducing livestock depredations by large carnivores. Wildlife Society Bulletin 40:806-815.  External resource


Nelson, A., P. Bidwell, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2003. A review of human-elephant conflict management strategies. People & Wildlife, A Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Born Free Foundation Partnership.  Download


Osborn, F. V. 2002. Capsicum oleoresin as an elephant repellent: field trials in the communal lands of Zimbabwe. Journal of Wildlife Management 66:674-677.  External resource


Parker, G. E., and F. V. Osborn. 2006. Investigating the potential for chilli Capsicum spp. to reduce human-wildlife conflict in Zimbabwe. Oryx 40:343-346.  External resource


Petracca, L. S., J. L. Frair, G. Bastille-Rousseau, D. W. Macdonald, and A. J. Loveridge. 2021. Harassment-induced changes in lion space use as a conflict mitigation tool. Conservation Science and Practice 3:e373.  Download

Pozo, R. A., T. Coulson, G. McCulloch, A. Stronza, and A. Songhurst. 2017. Chilli-briquettes modify the temporal behaviour of elephants, but not their numbers. Oryx:1-9.  External resource


Shivik, J. A. 2006. Tools for the edge: what's new for conserving carnivores. Bioscience 56:253-259.  External resource


Shivik, J. A., A. Treves, and P. Callahan. 2003. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17:1531-1537.  External resource


Sitati, N. W., and M. J. Walpole. 2006. Assessing farm-based measures for mitigating human-elephant conflict in Transmara District, Kenya. Oryx 40:279-286.  External resource


Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation II. Aversive conditioning, deterrents and repellents. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:304-315.  External resource


Smith, T. S., S. Herrero, C. S. Layton, R. T. Larsen, and K. R. Johnson. 2012. Efficacy of firearms for bear deterrence in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:1021-1027.  External resource


Snijders, L., N. M. Thierij, R. Appleby, C. C. St. Clair, and J. Tobajas. 2021. Conditioned taste aversion as a tool for mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Stone, S. A., S. W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P. M. Haswell, F. Najera, B. S. Bean, and D. J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98:33-44.  Download


Thuppil, V., and R. G. Coss. 2016. Playback of felid growls mitigates crop-raiding by elephants Elephas maximus in southern India. Oryx 50:329-335.  External resource


Treves, A., Wallace, R. B. and White, S. 2009. Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts. Conservation Biology 23:1577-1587.  External resource

van Eeden, L. M., M. S. Crowther, C. R. Dickman, D. W. Macdonald, W. J. Ripple, E. G. Ritchie, and T. M. Newsome. 2018. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock. Conservation Biology 32:26-34.  External resource

van Eeden, L. M., A. Eklund, J. R. B. Miller, J. V. López-Bao, G. Chapron, M. R. Cejtin, M. S. Crowther, C. R. Dickman, J. Frank, M. Krofel, D. W. Macdonald, J. McManus, T. K. Meyer, A. D. Middleton, T. M. Newsome, W. J. Ripple, E. G. Ritchie, O. J. Schmitz, K. J. Stoner, M. Tourani, and A. Treves. 2018. Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLOS Biology 16:e2005577.  Download

Volski, L., A. McInturff, K. M. Gaynor, V. Yovovich, and J. S. Brashares. 2021. Social effectiveness and human-wildlife conflict: linking the ecological effectiveness and social acceptability of livestock protection tools. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Widén, A., M. Clinchy, A. M. Felton, T. R. Hofmeester, D. P. J. Kuijper, N. J. Singh, F. Widemo, L. Y. Zanette, and J. P. G. M. Cromsigt. 2022. Playbacks of predator vocalizations reduce crop damage by ungulates. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 328:107853.   Download

Wilder, J. M., L. S. Mangipane, T. Atwood, A. Kochnev, T. Smith, and D. Vongraven. 2023. Efficacy of bear spray as a deterrent against polar bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 47:e1403.   Download

Young, J. K., E. Miller, and A. Essex. 2015. Evaluating fladry designs to improve utility as a nonlethal management tool to reduce livestock depredation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39:429-433.  External resource

Zarco-Gonzalez, M. M., and O. Monroy-Vilchis. 2014. Effectiveness of low-cost deterrents in decreasing livestock predation by felids: a case in Central Mexico. Animal Conservation 17:371-378.  External resource

Zimmermann, A., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, S. Wilson, J. Chakrabarty, B. Hazarika, and D. Das. 2009. Community-based human-elephant conflict management in Assam. Gajah 30:34-40.  Download  

Books and book chapters

Breitenmoser, U., C. Angst, J.-M. Landry, C. Breitenmoser-Würsten, J. D. C. Linnell, and J.-M. Weber. 2005. Non-lethal techniques for reducing depredation. Pages 49-71 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource


Linnell, J. D., J. Odden, and A. Mertens. 2012. Mitigation methods for conflicts associated with carnivore depredation on livestock. Carnivore ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques:314-332.  External resource


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