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Compensation & other financial instruments


Key Papers

Alexander, J. S., B. Agvaantseren, E. Gongor, T. N. Mijiddorj, T. Piaopiao, S. Redpath, J. Young, and C. Mishra. 2021. Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based livestock insurance program. Environmental Management 68:87-99.  External resource

Alexander, J. S., A. Bijoor, K. Gurmet, R. Murali, C. Mishra, and K. R. Suryawanshi. 2022. Engaging women brings conservation benefits to snow leopard landscapes. Environmental Conservation:1-7.  External resource

Anthony, B. P., and L. Swemmer. 2015. Co-defining program success: identifying objectives and indicators for a livestock damage compensation scheme at Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal for Nature Conservation 26:65-77.  External resource


Badola, R., T. Ahmed, A. K. Gill, P. Dobriyal, G. C. Das, S. Badola, and S. A. Hussain. 2021. An incentive-based mitigation strategy to encourage coexistence of large mammals and humans along the foothills of Indian Western Himalayas. Scientific Reports 11:5235.  External resource

Bauer, H., L. Muller, D. Van Der Goes, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2017. Financial compensation for damage to livestock by lions Panthera leo on community rangelands in Kenya. Oryx 51:106-114.  External resource


Bhattarai, B. R., D. Morgan, and W. Wright. 2021. Equitable sharing of benefits from tiger conservation: beneficiaries’ willingness to pay to offset the costs of tiger conservation. Journal of Environmental Management 284:112018.  External resource

Boitani, L., P. Ciucci, and E. Raganella-Pelliccioni. 2010. Ex-post compensation payments for wolf predation on livestock in Italy: a tool for conservation? Wildlife Research 37:722-730.  External resource


Bulte, E. H., and D. Rondeau. 2005. Why compensating wildlife damages may be bad for conservation. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:14-19.  External resource


Chen, S., Z. F. Yi, A. Campos-Arceiz, M. Y. Chen, and E. L. Webb. 2013. Developing a spatially-explicit, sustainable and risk-based insurance scheme to mitigate human-wildlife conflict. Biological Conservation 168:31-39.  External resource


DeMotts, R., and P. Hoon. 2012. Whose elephants? Conserving, compensating, and competing in Northern Botswana. Society & Natural Resources 25:837-851.  External resource


Dickman, A. J., E. A. Macdonald, and D. W. Macdonald. 2011. A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human-carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108:13937-13944.  External resource


Groom, R., and S. Harris. 2008. Conservation on community lands: the importance of equitable revenue sharing. Environmental Conservation 35:242-251.  External resource


Gulati, S., K. K. Karanth, N. A. Le, and F. Noack. 2021. Human casualties are the dominant cost of human–wildlife conflict in India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118:e1921338118.  External resources

Harihar, A., D. Verissimo, and D. C. MacMillan. 2015. Beyond compensation: integrating local communities' livelihood choices in large carnivore conservation. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 33:122-130.  External resource


Joshi, P., N. Dahanukar, S. Bharade, V. Dethe, S. Dethe, N. Bhandare, and M. Watve. 2021. Combining payment for crop damages and reward for productivity to address wildlife conflict. Conservation Biology. External resource

Karanth, K. K., A. M. Gopalaswamy, R. DeFries, and N. Ballal. 2012. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area. Plos One 7.  Download


Karanth, K. K., A. M. Gopalaswamy, P. K. Prasad, and S. Dasgupta. 2013. Patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation: insights from Western Ghats protected areas. Biological Conservation 166:175-185.  External resource


Karanth, K. K., S. Gupta, and A. Vanamamalai. 2018. Compensation payments, procedures and policies towards human-wildlife conflict management: insights from India. Biological Conservation.  External resource


Kshettry, A., N. Bhave, P. Das, and V. Athreya. 2021. Mahakal blessed my crop: community dynamics and religious beliefs influence efficacy of a wildlife compensation program. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Loch-Temzelides, T. 2021. Conservation, risk aversion, and livestock insurance: the case of the snow leopard. Conservation Letters. e12793.  Download

Maclennan, S. D., R. J. Groom, D. W. Macdonald, and L. G. Frank. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation 142:2419-2427.  External resource


Marino, A., C. Braschi, S. Ricci, V. Salvatori, and P. Ciucci. 2016. Ex post and insurance-based compensation fail to increase tolerance for wolves in semi-agricultural landscapes of central Italy. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62:227-240.  External resource


Milheiras, S., and I. Hodge. 2011. Attitudes towards compensation for wolf damage to livestock in Viana do Castelo, North of Portugal. Innovation-the European Journal of Social Science Research 24:333-351.  External resource


Nyhus, P., H. Fischer, F. Madden, and S. Osofsky. 2003. Taking the bite out of wildlife damage: the challenges of wildlife compensation schemes. Conservation in Practice 4:37-43.  External resource


Ogra, M., and R. Badola. 2008. Compensating human-wildlife conflict in protected area communities: ground-level perspectives from Uttarakhand, India. Human Ecology 36:717-729.  External resource


Pechacek, P., G. Li, J. S. Li, W. Wang, X. P. Wu, and J. Xu. 2013. Compensation payments for downsides generated by protected areas. Ambio 42:90-99.  External resource


Ravenelle, J., and P. J. Nyhus. 2017. Global patterns and trends in human–wildlife conflict compensation. Conservation Biology 31:1247-1256.  External resource


Rosen, T., S. Hussain, G. Mohammad, R. Jackson, J. E. Janecka, and S. Michel. 2012. Reconciling sustainable development of mountain communities with large carnivore conservation lessons from Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development 32:286-293.  Download

Rust, N. A. 2015. Media framing of financial mechanisms for resolving human–predator conflict in Namibia. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 20:440-453.  Download

Schwerdtner, K., and B. Gruber. 2007. A conceptual framework for damage compensation schemes. Biological Conservation 134:354-360.  External resource

Wilson-Holt, O., and P. Steele. 2019. Human-wildlife conflict and insurance. Can insurance reduce the costs of living with wildlife? IIED, London.  Download

Books and book chapters

Nyhus, P. J., S. A. Osofsky, P. Ferraro, F. Madden, and H. Fischer. 2005. Bearing the costs of human–wildlife conflict: the challenges of compensation schemes. Pages 107-121 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  External resource

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