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Asian elephant


Guidance Documents

Guide for implementing community-based electric fences for the effective mitigation of human-elephant conflict (2020). (Fernando, P)

English  Download       French  Download


Human-elephant conflict mitigation measures: lessons from Bangladesh (2016). (IUCN)  Download


A Manual for Human-Elephant Conflict Monitoring (2010). (Wildlife Conservation Society)  Download


Living with elephants in Assam a handbook (2009). (Assam Haathi Project)  Download


Review of human-elephant conflict mitigation measures practiced in South Asia (2008). (WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature)  Download


Guidelines on the better management practices for the mitigation and management of human-elephant conflict in and around oil-palm plantations in Indonesia and Malaysia, final draft (2005). (WWF-Malaysia)  Download  

Key Papers

Ardiantiono, Sugiyo, P. J. Johnson, M. I. Lubis, F. Amama, Sukatmoko, W. Marthy, and A. Zimmermann. 2021. Towards coexistence: can people's attitudes explain their willingness to live with Sumatran elephants in Indonesia? Conservation Science and Practice n/a:e520.  Download

Bal, P., C. D. Nath, K. M. Nanaya, C. G. Kushalappa, and C. Garcia. 2011. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India. Environmental Management 47:789-801.  External resource


Ball, R., S. L. Jacobson, M. S. Rudolph, M. Trapani, and J. M. Plotnik. 2022. Acknowledging the relevance of elephant sensory perception to human-elephant conflict mitigation. Animals 12:1018.   Download

Bandara, R., and C. Tisdell. 2003. Comparison of rural and urban attitudes to the conservation of Asian elephants in Sri Lanka: empirical evidence. Biological Conservation 110:327-342.  External resource


Banerjee, S., and A. Aiyadurai. 2021. ‘Everyday conservation’: a study of actors and processes in an elephant conservation project in Assam, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-18.  External resource

Barua, M. 2010. Whose issue? Representations of human-elephant conflict in Indian and international media. Science Communication 32:55-75.  External resource


Barua, M., S. A. Bhagwat, and S. Jadhav. 2013. The hidden dimensions of human-wildlife conflict: health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs. Biological Conservation 157:309-316.  External resource


Budd, K., C. Sampson, P. Leimgruber, D. Tonkyn, K. Storey, M. Garrett, and L. S. Eggert. 2021. Population structure and demography of Myanmar's conflict elephants. Global Ecology and Conservation:e01828.  Download

Campos-Arceiz, A., J. A. de la Torre, K. Wei, X. O. Wu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, Z. Yang, S. Chen, Y. Bai, R. T. Corlett, and F. Chen. 2022. China's wandering elephants: integrating exceptional movements into conservation planning. Integrative Conservation 1:40-51.   Download

Campos-Arceiz, A., J. A. de la Torre, K. Wei, X. O. Wu, Y. Zhu, M. Zhao, S. Chen, Y. Bai, R. T. Corlett, and F. Chen. 2021. The return of the elephants: how two groups of dispersing elephants attracted the attention of billions and what can we learn from their behavior. Conservation Letters n/a:e12836.  Download

Chen, S., Z. F. Yi, A. Campos-Arceiz, M. Y. Chen, and E. L. Webb. 2013. Developing a spatially-explicit, sustainable and risk-based insurance scheme to mitigate human-wildlife conflict. Biological Conservation 168:31-39.  External resource


Chen, Y., J. Marino, Q. Tao, C. D. Sullivan, K. Shi, and D. W. Macdonald. 2016. Predicting hotspots of human-elephant conflict to inform mitigation strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Plos One 11:15.  Download


Choudhury, A. 2004. Human–elephant conflicts in Northeast India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9:261-270.  External resource


Davies, T. E., S. Wilson, N. Hazarika, J. Chakrabarty, D. Das, D. J. Hodgson, and A. Zimmermann. 2011. Effectiveness of intervention methods against crop-raiding elephants. Conservation Letters 4:346-354.  Download


de la Torre, J. A., E. P. Wong, A. M. Lechner, N. Zulaikha, A. Zawawi, P. Abdul-Patah, S. Saaban, B. Goossens, and A. Campos-Arceiz. 2021. There will be conflict – agricultural landscapes are prime, rather than marginal, habitats for Asian elephants. Animal Conservation  External resource

Denninger Snyder, K., and D. Rentsch. 2020. Rethinking assessment of success of mitigation strategies for elephant-induced crop damage. Conservation Biology  External resource


Dror, S., F. Harich, O. Duangphakdee, T. Savini, Á. Pogány, J. Roberts, J. Geheran, and A. C. Treydte. 2020. Are Asian elephants afraid of honeybees? Experimental studies in northern Thailand. Mammalian Biology.  Download


Fernando, C., M. A. Weston, R. Corea, K. Pahirana, and A. R. Rendall. 2022. Asian elephant movements between natural and human-dominated landscapes mirror patterns of crop damage in Sri Lanka. Oryx:1-8.   Download

Fernando, P., P. Leimgruber, T. Prasad, and J. Pastorini. 2012. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant? Plos One 7:9.  Download


Fernando, P., Wikramanayake, E., Weerakoon, D., Jayasinghe, L. K. A., Gunawardene, M. and Janaka, H. K. 2005. Perceptions and patterns of human-elephant conflict in old and new settlements in Sri Lanka: insights for mitigation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:2465-2481.  External resource

Goswami, V. R., K. Medhi, J. D. Nichols, and M. K. Oli. 2015. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models. Conservation Biology 29:1100-1110.  External resource


Goswami, V. R., and D. Vasudev. 2017. Triage of conservation needs: the juxtaposition of conflict mitigation and connectivity considerations in heterogeneous, human-dominated landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 4.  Download


Goswami, V. R., D. Vasudev, and M. K. Oli. 2014. The importance of conflict-induced mortality for conservation planning in areas of human-elephant co-occurrence. Biological Conservation 176:191-198.  External resource


Gross, E. M., B. P. Lahkar, N. Subedi, V. R. Nyirenda, L. L. Lichtenfeld, and O. Jakoby. 2018. Seasonality, crop type and crop phenology influence crop damage by wildlife herbivores in Africa and Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation.  External resource


Gubbi, S. 2012. Patterns and correlates of human-elephant conflict around a south Indian reserve. Biological Conservation 148:88-95.  External resource


Gubbi, S., M. H. Swaminath, H. C. Poornesha, R. Bhat, and R. Raghunath. 2014. An elephantine challenge: human-elephant conflict distribution in the largest Asian elephant population, southern India. Biodiversity and Conservation 23:633-647.  External resource


Gunaryadi, D., Sugiyo, and S. Hedges. 2017. Community-based human–elephant conflict mitigation: the value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods. Plos One 12:e0173742.  Download


Hedges, S., and D. Giunaryadi. 2010. Reducing human-elephant conflict: do chillies help deter elephants from entering crop fields? Oryx 44:139-146.  External resource


Jadhav, S., and M. Barua. 2012. The elephant vanishes: impact of human-elephant conflict on people's wellbeing. Health & Place 18:1356-1365.  External resource


Karanth, K. K., A. M. Gopalaswamy, P. K. Prasad, and S. Dasgupta. 2013. Patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation: insights from Western Ghats protected areas. Biological Conservation 166:175-185.  External resource


Karanth, K. K., and S. Kudalkar. 2017. History, location, and species matter: insights for human–wildlife conflict mitigation from India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 22:331-346.  External resource

LaDue, C. A., I. Eranda, C. Jayasinghe, and R. P. G. Vandercone. 2021. Mortality patterns of Asian elephants in a region of human–elephant conflict. The Journal of Wildlife Management  External resource  


Natarajan, L., A. Kumar, Q. Qureshi, A. A. Desai, and B. Pandav. 2021. Evaluation of wall-barriers to manage human conflict with Asian elephants in India. Wildlife Society Bulletin.  External resource

Nayak, M., and P. K. Swain. 2021. Perceptions through artwork: children’s understanding of elephants and human-elephant interactions in Balasore, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife:1-10.  External resource

Neupane, D., S. Kunwar, A. K. Bohara, T. S. Risch, and R. L. Johnson. 2017. Willingness to pay for mitigating human-elephant conflict by residents of Nepal. Journal for Nature Conservation 36:65-76.  Download


Nyhus, P., and R. Tilson. 2004. Agroforestry, elephants, and tigers: balancing conservation theory and practice in human-dominated landscapes of Southeast Asia. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 104:87-97.  External resource


Nyhus, P. J., R. Tilson, and Sumianto. 2000. Crop-raiding elephants and conservation implications at Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 34:262-274.  External resource


Ogra, M. 2009. Attitudes toward resolution of human-wildlife conflict among forest-dependent agriculturalists near Rajaji National Park, India. Human Ecology 37:161-177.  External resource


Ogra, M., and R. Badola. 2008. Compensating human-wildlife conflict in protected area communities: ground-level perspectives from Uttarakhand, India. Human Ecology 36:717-729.  External resource


Ogra, M. V. 2008. Human-wildlife conflict and gender in protected area borderlands: a case study of costs, perceptions, and vulnerabilities from Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal), India. Geoforum 39:1408-1422.  External resource


Oommen, M. A. 2021. Beasts in the garden: human-wildlife coexistence in India's past and present. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2. Download

Othman, N., M. A.-S. Mustapah, A. G. Quilter, and A. DeWan. 2022. Understanding barriers and benefits to adopting elephant coexistence practices in oil palm plantation landscapes in Lower Kinabatangan, Sabah. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3.   Download

Pant, G., M. Dhakal, N. M. B. Pradhan, F. Leverington, and M. Hockings. 2016. Nature and extent of human-elephant Elephas maximus conflict in central Nepal. Oryx 50:724-731.  External resource


Plotnik, J. M., and S. L. Jacobson. 2022. A “thinking animal” in conflict: studying wild elephant cognition in the shadow of anthropogenic change. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 46:101148.  External resource

Pokharel, S. S., B. Singh, P. B. Seshagiri, and R. Sukumar. 2018. Lower levels of glucocorticoids in crop-raiders: diet quality as a potential ‘pacifier’ against stress in free-ranging Asian elephants in a human-production habitat. Animal Conservation.  External resource

Prins, H. H., Y. Liefting, and J. F. de Jong. 2021. Marginal farmers carry the burden of damage caused by Asian elephants Elephas maximus in Bardiya National Park, Nepal. Oryx:1-9.  Download

Rubino, E. C., C. Serenari, N. Othman, M. Ancrenaz, F. Sarjono, and E. Ahmad. 2021. Viewing Bornean human–elephant conflicts through an environmental justice lens. Human–Wildlife Interactions 14:18.  Download


Saif, O., R. Kansky, A. Palash, M. Kidd, and A. T. Knight. Costs of coexistence: understanding the drivers of tolerance towards Asian elephants Elephas maximus in rural Bangladesh. Oryx:1-9.  External resource


Sampson, C., S. L. Rodriguez, P. Leimgruber, Q. Huang, and D. Tonkyn. 2021. A quantitative assessment of the indirect impacts of human-elephant conflict. Plos One 16:e0253784.  Download

Shaffer, L. J., K. K. Khadka, J. Van Den Hoek, and K. J. Naithani. 2019. Human-elephant conflict: a review of current management strategies and future directions. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6.  External resource


Sukumar, R. 1990. Ecology of the Asian elephant in Southern India .II. Feeding-habits and crop raiding patterns. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:33-53.  External resource


Sukumar, R. 1991. The management of large mammals in relation to male strategies and conflict with people. Biological Conservation 55:93-102.  External resource


Sukumar, R., and M. Gadgil. 1988. Male-female differences in foraging on crops by Asian elephants. Animal Behaviour 36:1233-1235.  External resource


Thekaekara, T., S. A. Bhagwat, and T. F. Thornton. 2021. Coexistence and culture: understanding human diversity and tolerance in human-elephant interactions. Frontiers in Conservation Science 2.  Download

Thuppil, V., and R. G. Coss. 2016. Playback of felid growls mitigates crop-raiding by elephants Elephas maximus in southern India. Oryx 50:329-335.  External resource


Tripathy, B. R., X. Liu, M. Songer, L. Kumar, S. Kaliraj, N. D. Chatterjee, W. M. S. Wickramasinghe, and K. K. Mahanta. 2021. Descriptive spatial analysis of human-elephant conflict (HEC) distribution and mapping HEC hotspots in Keonjhar Forest Division, India. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9.  External resource

Vasudev, D., R. J. Fletcher, N. Srinivas, A. J. Marx, and V. R. Goswami. 2023. Mapping the connectivity–conflict interface to inform conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 120:e2211482119.   Download

Venkataraman, A. B., R. Saandeep, N. Baskaran, M. Roy, A. Madhivanan, and R. Sukumar. 2005. Using satellite telemetry to mitigate elephant-human conflict: an experiment in northern West Bengal, India. Current Science 88:1827-1831.  Download


Webber, C. E., T. Sereivathana, M. P. Maltby, and P. C. Lee. 2011. Elephant crop-raiding and human-elephant conflict in Cambodia: crop selection and seasonal timings of raids. Oryx 45:243-251.  External resource


Wilson, S., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, and A. Zimmermann. 2015. Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of human-elephant conflict in Assam, India. Oryx 49:140-149.  External resource


Zimmermann, A., T. E. Davies, N. Hazarika, S. Wilson, J. Chakrabarty, B. Hazarika, and D. Das. 2009. Community-based human-elephant conflict management in Assam. Gajah 30:34-40.  Download


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