Follow us on:

Livestock guarding

Livestock guarding

Guidance Documents

Livestock guarding dogs - cultural heritage icons with a new relevance for mitigating conservation conflicts (2015). (Linnell, J.D.C. and Lescureux, N.) External resource

Livestock guarding dog program: a farmers manual (2014). (Cheetah Conservation Botswana) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Key Papers

Akyazi, I., Y. Z. Ograk, E. Eraslan, M. Arslan, and E. Matur. Livestock guarding behaviour of Kangal dogs in their native habitat. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. External resource

Allen, B. L., L. R. Allen, G. Ballard, M. Drouilly, P. J. S. Fleming, J. O. Hampton, M. W. Hayward, G. I. H. Kerley, P. D. Meek, L. Minnie, M. J. O'Riain, D. M. Parker, and M. J. Somers. 2019. Animal welfare considerations for using large carnivores and guardian dogs as vertebrate biocontrol tools against other animals. Biological Conservation 232:258-270. External resource

Allen, L. R., N. Stewart-Moore, D. Byrne, and B. L. Allen. 2017. Guardian dogs protect sheep by guarding sheep, not by establishing territories and excluding predators. Animal Production Science 57:1118-1127. External resource

Andelt, W. 2004. Use of livestock guarding animals to reduce predation on livestock. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Andelt, W. F. 1992. Effectiveness of livestock guarding dogs for reducing predation on domestic sheep. Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006) 20:55-62. External resource

Andelt, W. F. 1995. Livestock guard dogs, llamas and donkeys for reducing livestock losses to predators. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Andelt, W. F., and S. N. Hopper. 2000. Livestock guard dogs reduce predation on domestic sheep in Colorado. Journal of Range Management 53:259-267. External resource

Bangs, E. E., and J. Shivik. 2001. Managing wolf conflicts with livestock in the Northwest United States. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 3:2-5. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Black, H. L., and J. S. Green. 1985. Navajo use of mixed-breed dogs for management of predators. Journal of Range Management 38:11-15. External resource

Bourne, J. 1994. Protecting livestock with guard donkeys. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Cavalcanti, S. M. C., and F. F. Knowlton. 1998. Evaluation of physical and behavioral traits of llamas associated with aggressiveness toward sheep-threatening canids. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61:143-158. External resource

Coppinger, R., J. Lorenz, J. Glendinning, and P. Pinardi. 1983. Attentiveness of guarding dogs for reducing predation on domestic sheep. Journal of Range Management 36:275-279. External resource

Eklund, A., J. V. López-Bao, M. Tourani, G. Chapron, and J. Frank. 2017. Limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. Scientific Reports 7:2097. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gehring, T. M., K. C. VerCauteren, and J.-M. Landry. 2010. Livestock protection dogs in the 21st century: is an ancient tool relevant to modern conservation challenges? Bioscience 60:299-308. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gehring, T. M., K. C. VerCauteren, M. L. Provost, and A. C. Cellar. 2010. Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms. Wildlife Research 37:715-721. External resource

Gingold, G., Y. Yom-Tov, N. Kronfeld-Schor, and E. Geffen. 2009. Effect of guard dogs on the behavior and reproduction of gazelles in cattle enclosures on the Golan Heights. Animal Conservation 12:155-162. External resource

González, A., A. Novaro, M. Funes, O. Pailacura, M. J. Bolgeri, and S. Walker. 2012. Mixed-breed guarding dogs reduce conflict between goat herders and native carnivores in Patagonia. Human–Wildlife Interactions 6:14. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Green, J. S., and R. A. Woodruff. 1988. Breed comparisons and characteristics of use of livestock guarding dogs. Journal of Range Management:249-251. External resource

Green, J. S., R. A. Woodruff, and T. T. Tueller. 1984. Livestock-guarding dogs for predator control: costs, benefits, and practicality. Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006) 12:44-50. External resource

Hansen, I., and M. Bakken. 1999. Livestock-guarding dogs in Norway: part I. Interactions. Journal of Range Management:2-6. External resource

Hansen, I., and M. E. Smith. 1999. Livestock-guarding dogs in Norway Part II: Different working regimes. Journal of Range Management:312-316. External resource

Khorozyan, I., M. Soofi, M. Soufi, A. K. Hamidi, A. Ghoddousi, and M. Waltert. 2017. Effects of shepherds and dogs on livestock depredation by leopards (Panthera pardus) in north-eastern Iran. Peerj 5:e3049. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Landry, J.-M., P. Olsson, A. Siegenthaler, P. Jackson, and A. Farrell. 1999. The use of guard dogs in the Swiss Alps: a first analysis. KORA, Koordinierte Forschungsprojekte zur Erhaltung und zum Management der Raubtiere in der Schweiz. External resource

Landry, J. 2000. Testing livestock guard donkeys in the Swiss Alps. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 1:6-7. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2014. Warring brothers: the complex interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) in a conservation context. Biological Conservation 171:232-245. External resource

Lorenz, J. R. 1985. Introducing livestock-guarding dogs. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Lorenz, J. R., R. P. Coppinger, and M. R. Sutherland. 1986. Causes and economic effects of mortality in livestock guarding dogs. Journal of Range Management 39:293-295. External resource

Marker, L. 2000. Donkeys protecting livestock in Namibia. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 2:7-8. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Marker, L., A. Dickman, and M. Schumann. 2005. Using livestock guarding dogs as a conflict resolution strategy on Namibian farms. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 8:28-32. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2005. Perceived effectiveness of livestock-guarding dogs placed on Namibian farms. Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:329-336. External resource

Marker, L. L., A. J. Dickman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2005. Survivorship and causes of mortality for livestock-guarding dogs on Namibian rangeland. Rangeland Ecology & Management 58:337-343. External resource

McManus, J. S., A. J. Dickman, D. Gaynor, B. H. Smuts, and D. W. Macdonald. 2015. Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human-wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms. Oryx 49:687-695. External resource

Meadows, L. E., and F. F. Knowlton. 2000. Efficacy of guard llamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep. Wildlife Society Bulletin:614-622. External resource

Ogada, M. O., R. Woodroffe, N. O. Oguge, and L. G. Frank. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology 17:1521-1530. External resource

Potgieter, G. C., G. I. H. Kerley, and L. L. Marker. 2016. More bark than bite? The role of livestock guarding dogs in predator control on Namibian farmlands. Oryx 50:514-522. External resource

Potgieter, G. C., L. L. Marker, N. L. Avenant, and G. I. Kerley. 2013. Why Namibian farmers are satisfied with the performance of their livestock guarding dogs. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:403-415. External resource

Rigg, R. 2001. Livestock guarding dogs: their current use world wide. Canid Specialist Group. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Rigg, R., S. Findo, M. Wechselberger, M. L. Gorman, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and D. W. Macdonald. 2011. Mitigating carnivore-livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45:272-280. External resource

Rust, N. A., K. M. Whitehouse-Tedd, and D. C. MacMillan. 2013. Perceived efficacy of livestock-guarding dogs in South Africa: implications for cheetah conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 37:690-697. External resource

Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation: I. Guardian animals. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:279-290. External resource

Stone, S. A., S. W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P. M. Haswell, F. Najera, B. S. Bean, and D. J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98:33-44. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Treves, A., and K. U. Karanth. 2003. Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17:1491-1499. External resource

Urbigkit, C., and J. Urbigkit. 2010. A review: the use of livestock protection dogs in association with large carnivores in the Rocky Mountains. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 25. External resource

van Bommel, L., and C. N. Johnson. 2014. Where do livestock guardian dogs go? Movement patterns of free-ranging Maremma sheepdogs. Plos One 9:e111444. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

van Bommel, L., and C. N. Johnson. 2015. How guardian dogs protect livestock from predators: territorial enforcement by Maremma sheepdogs. Wildlife Research 41:662-672. External resource

van Eeden, L. M., A. Eklund, J. R. B. Miller, J. V. López-Bao, G. Chapron, M. R. Cejtin, M. S. Crowther, C. R. Dickman, J. Frank, M. Krofel, D. W. Macdonald, J. McManus, T. K. Meyer, A. D. Middleton, T. M. Newsome, W. J. Ripple, E. G. Ritchie, O. J. Schmitz, K. J. Stoner, M. Tourani, and A. Treves. 2018. Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLOS Biology 16:e2005577. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

VerCauteren, K. C., M. J. Lavelle, T. M. Gehring, and J.-M. Landry. 2012. Cow dogs: use of livestock protection dogs for reducing predation and transmission of pathogens from wildlife to cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 140:128-136. External resource

Zingaro, M., V. Salvatori, L. Vielmi, and L. Boitani. 2018. Are the livestock guarding dogs where they are supposed to be? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 198:89-94. External resource

Books and Book Chapters

Breitenmoser, U., C. Angst, J.-M. Landry, C. Breitenmoser-Würsten, J. D. C. Linnell, and J.-M. Weber. 2005. Non-lethal techniques for reducing depredation. Pages 49-71 in A. Rabinowitz, R. Woodroffe, and S. Thirgood, editors. People and wildlife, conflict or co-existence? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. External resource

Coppinger, R., and R. Schneider. 1995. Evolution of working dogs. Pages 21-47 in J. Serpell, editor. The domestic dog: its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. External resource

Dickman, A., G. Potgieter, J. Horgan, K. Stoner, R. Klein, J. McManus, and L. Marker. 2018. Use of livestock guarding dogs to reduce human-cheetah conflict. Pages 209-221 in P. J. Nyhus, L. Marker, L. K. Boast, and A. Schmidt-Küntzel, editors. Cheetahs: biology and conservation. Academic Press. External resource

Linnell, J. D., J. Odden, and A. Mertens. 2012. Mitigation methods for conflicts associated with carnivore depredation on livestock. Carnivore ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques:314-332. External resource


Carnivore damage prevention news    Issue 10-Present        Earlier issues


Credit: People and Carnivores