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Snakebite envenoming: a strategy for prevention and control (2019). (World Health Organization) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Guidelines for the management of snake-bites in South-East Asia (2016). (World Health Organization) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

A clinician's guide to Australian venomous bites and stings: incorporating the updated CSL antivenom handbook (2013). (White, J.)  External resource

Guidelines for the prevention and clinical management of snakebites in Africa (2010). (World Health Organization) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download  

Manual para la identificación, prevención y tratamiento de mordeduras de serpientes venenosas en Centro América, Volumen I: Guatemala (2009). (Pan American Health Organization) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Key Papers

Akani, G. C., N. Ebere, D. Franco, E. A. Eniang, F. Petrozzi, E. Politano, and L. Luiselli. 2013. Correlation between annual activity patterns of venomous snakes and rural people in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 19:2. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Bochner, R., J. T. Fiszon, and C. Machado. 2014. A profile of snake bites in Brazil, 2001 to 2012. Journal of Clinical Toxicology 4. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Bolon, I., M. Finat, M. Herrera, A. Nickerson, D. Grace, S. Schütte, S. Babo Martins, and R. Ruiz de Castañeda. 2019. Snakebite in domestic animals: first global scoping review. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 170:104729. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Brown, J. R., Bishop, C. A. and Brooks, R. J. 2009. Effectiveness of short-distance translocation and its effects on western rattlesnakes. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:419-425. External resource

Butler, H., Malone, B. and Clemann, N. 2005. Activity patterns and habitat preferences of translocated and resident tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) in a suburban landscape. Wildlife Research 32:157-163. External resource

Chen, X., H. He, and H. Cai. 2019. Clinical and epidemiologic profile of venomous snakebites in Chongqing Wuling mountainous area, western China. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 113:587-589. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Chew, K. S., H. W. Khor, R. Ahmad, and N. H. N. A. Rahman. 2011. A five-year retrospective review of snakebite patients admitted to a tertiary university hospital in Malaysia. International journal of emergency medicine 4:41-41. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Corbett, B., and R. F. Clark. 2017. North American snake envenomation. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 35:339-354. External resource

De Castro, S. G., and X. V. Fernández. 2005. El manejo de las mordeduras de serpiente en Sudamérica. Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias 17:267-273. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Devan-Song, A., P. Martelli, D. Dudgeon, P. Crow, G. Ades, and N. E. Karraker. 2016. Is long-distance translocation an effective mitigation tool for white-lipped pit vipers (Trimeresurus albolabris) in South China? Biological Conservation 204:212-220. External resource

Ediriweera, D. S., A. Kasturiratne, A. Pathmeswaran, N. K. Gunawardena, B. A. Wijayawickrama, S. F. Jayamanne, G. K. Isbister, A. Dawson, E. Giorgi, P. J. Diggle, D. G. Lalloo, and H. J. de Silva. 2016. Mapping the risk of snakebite in Sri Lanka - a national survey with geospatial analysis. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10:e0004813. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Feitosa, E. S., V. Sampaio, J. Sachett, D. B. d. Castro, M. d. D. N. Noronha, J. L. L. Lozano, E. Muniz, L. C. d. L. Ferreira, M. V. G. d. Lacerda, and W. M. Monteiro. 2015. Snakebites as a largely neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon: highlights of the epidemiological trends in the State of Amazonas. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 48:34-41. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Fry, B. G. 2018. Snakebite: when the human touch becomes a bad touch. Toxins 10:170. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Germano, J. M., and P. J. Bishop. 2009. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation. Conservation Biology 23:7-15. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gutiérrez, J. M., T. Burnouf, R. A. Harrison, J. J. Calvete, N. Brown, S. D. Jensen, D. A. Warrell, D. J. Williams, and I. Global Snakebite. 2015. A call for incorporating social research in the global struggle against snakebite. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9:e0003960. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Johnston, C. I., N. M. Ryan, C. B. Page, N. A. Buckley, S. G. Brown, M. A. O'Leary, and G. K. Isbister. 2017. The Australian Snakebite Project, 2005–2015 (ASP-20). Medical Journal of Australia 207:119-125. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Kasturiratne, A., A. R. Wickremasinghe, N. de Silva, N. K. Gunawardena, A. Pathmeswaran, R. Premaratna, L. Savioli, D. G. Lalloo, and H. J. de Silva. 2008. The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths. PLOS Medicine 5:e218. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Longbottom, J., F. M. Shearer, M. Devine, G. Alcoba, F. Chappuis, D. J. Weiss, S. E. Ray, N. Ray, D. A. Warrell, R. Ruiz de Castañeda, D. J. Williams, S. I. Hay, and D. M. Pigott. 2018. Vulnerability to snakebite envenoming: a global mapping of hotspots. The Lancet 392:673-684. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Malik, R., J. O. Bukie, and J. J. Oigocho. 2018. Assessment of snake bite in some selected communities in Benue State, Nigeria. Page 64 in Proceedings of 6th NSCB Biodiversity Conference; Uniuyo. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Marshall, B. M., C. T. Strine, M. D. Jones, A. Theodorou, E. Amber, S. Waengsothorn, P. Suwanwaree, and M. Goode. 2018. Hits close to home: repeated persecution of king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) in northeastern Thailand. Tropical Conservation Science 11:1940082918818401. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

McGhee, S., A. Finnegan, J. M. Clochesy, and C. Visovsky. 2015. Effects of snake envenomation: a guide for emergency nurses. Emergency nurse 22. External resource

Menon, J. C., J. K. Joseph, and R. E. Whitaker. 2017. Venomous snake bite in India-why do 50,000 Indians die every year? J Assoc Physicians India 65:78-81. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Mise, Y. F., R. M. Lira-da-Silva, and F. M. Carvalho. 2018. Time to treatment and severity of snake envenoming in Brazil. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 42:e52. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Mohapatra, B., D. A. Warrell, W. Suraweera, P. Bhatia, N. Dhingra, R. M. Jotkar, P. S. Rodriguez, K. Mishra, R. Whitaker, P. Jha, and C. for the Million Death Study. 2011. Snakebite mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5:e1018. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Narayanan, Y., and S. Bindumadhav. 2019. ‘Posthuman cosmopolitanism’ for the Anthropocene in India: urbanism and human-snake relations in the Kali Yuga. Geoforum 106:402-410. External resource

Nonga, H. E., and A. Haruna. 2015. Assessment of human-snake interaction and its outcomes in Monduli District, northern Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research 17. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Ochola, F. O., M. O. Okumu, G. M. Muchemi, J. M. Mbaria, and J. K. Gikunju. 2018. Epidemiology of snake bites in selected areas of Kenya. The Pan African medical journal 29:217-217. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Pandey, D. P., G. S. Pandey, K. Devkota, and M. Goode. 2016. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12:24. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Senji Laxme, R. R., S. Khochare, H. F. de Souza, B. Ahuja, V. Suranse, G. Martin, R. Whitaker, and K. Sunagar. 2019. Beyond the ‘big four’: venom profiling of the medically important yet neglected Indian snakes reveals disturbing antivenom deficiencies. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 13:e0007899. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Stewart, C. J. 2003. Snake bite in Australia: first aid and envenomation management. Accident and Emergency Nursing 11:106-111. External resource

Sullivan, B. K., E. M. Nowak, and M. A. Kwiatkowski. 2015. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna. Conservation Biology 29:12-18. External resource

Suraweera, W., D. Warrell, R. Whitaker, G. Menon, R. Rodrigues, S. H. Fu, R. Begum, P. Sati, K. Piyasena, M. Bhatia, P. Brown, and P. Jha. 2020. Trends in snakebite deaths in India from 2000 to 2019 in a nationally representative mortality study. eLife 9:e54076. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Warrell, D. A. 2005. Treatment of bites by adders and exotic venomous snakes. BMJ 331:1244-1247. External resource

Whitaker, R. 2018. Snakebite Mitigation Project of the Madras Crocodile Bank/Centre for Herpetology, India: background and a brief summary of activities. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 113:818-819. External resource

Whitaker, R., and S. Whitaker. 2012. Venom, antivenom production and the medically important snakes of India. Current Science 103:635-643. External resource

Williams, S. S., C. A. Wijesinghe, S. F. Jayamanne, N. A. Buckley, A. H. Dawson, D. G. Lalloo, and H. J. de Silva. 2011. Delayed psychological morbidity associated with snakebite envenoming. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5:e1255. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Wood, D., B. Sartorius, and R. Hift. 2016. Snakebite in north-eastern South Africa: clinical characteristics and risks for severity. South African Family Practice 58:62-67. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Yuan, F. L., U. P. Ballullaya, R. Roshnath, T. C. Bonebrake, and P. A. Sinu. 2020. Sacred groves and serpent-gods moderate human–snake relations. People and Nature 2:111-122. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Yue, S., T. C. BoneBrake, and L. Gibson. 2019. Human-snake conflict patterns in a dense urban-forest mosaic landscape. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 14:143-154. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Zúñiga Carrasco, I. R., and J. Caro Lozano. 2013. Aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de la mordedura de serpientes en México. Evidencia médica e investigación en salud 6:125-136. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download  

Books and Book Chapters

de Oliveira, S. S., V. de Souza Sampaio, J. de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, E. Campos Alves, V. C. da Silva, J. A. Alcântara de Lima, I. M. da Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, P. Bernarde, H. W. Fan, M. V. Guimarães de Lacerda, and W. M. Monteiro. 2018. Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: current knowledge and perspectives. Pages 73-99 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. External resource

Gutiérrez, J. M. 2018. Snakebite envenoming in Latin America and the Caribbean. Pages 51-72 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. External resource

Marais, J. 2014. Snakes & snakebite in Southern Africa. Penguin Random House South Africa. External resource

Otero-Patiño, R. 2018. Snake bites in Colombia. Pages 3-50 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. External resource

Persson, H. 2018. Pathophysiology and treatment of envenomation by European vipers. Pages 357-375 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. External resource

Tibballs, J. 2018. Australian snakebite and treatment. Pages 181-221 in C.-W. Vogel, S. A. Seifert, and D. V. Tambourgi, editors. Clinical toxinology in Australia, Europe, and Americas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. External resource

Warrell, D. A. 2015. Envenoming: consequences and management. Pages 1-10 eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. External resource

Whitaker, R., and G. Martin. 2015. Diversity and distribution of medically important snakes of India. Pages 115-136 in P. Gopalakrishnakone, A. Faiz, R. Fernando, C. A. Gnanathasan, A. G. Habib, and C.-C. Yang, editors. Clinical toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. External resource


African Snakebite Institute

Clinical Toxinology Resources: snakebite

WHO (World Health Organisation)

Global Snakebite Initiative

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM)

Munich AntiVenom Index




Credit: Madras Crocodile Bank Trust

Four deadliest snakes in India: a survival guide

Credit: Madras Crocodile Bank Trust