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Guidance Documents

The predator safe livestock guide: an introduction to protecting livestock and deterring predators (2017). (Cheetah Conservation Botswana) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Human-leopard conflict management guidelines (2007). (Athreya, V.R. and Belsare, A.V.)

Hindi Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

           Marathi Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

           English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Key Papers

Abade, L., J. Cusack, R. J. Moll, P. Strampelli, A. J. Dickman, D. W. Macdonald, and R. A. Montgomery. 2018. Spatial variation in leopard (Panthera pardus) site use across a gradient of anthropogenic pressure in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape. Plos One 13:e0204370. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Athreya, V., M. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, and K. U. Karanth. 2011. Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India. Conservation Biology 25:133-141. External resource

Athreya, V., M. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy, and K. U. Karanth. 2016. A cat among the dogs: leopard Panthera pardus diet in a human-dominated landscape in western Maharashtra, India. Oryx 50:156-162. External resource

Athreya, V., M. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Krishnaswamy, and U. Karanth. 2013. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. Plos One 8:e57872. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Athreya, V., S. Pimpale, A. S. Borkar, N. Surve, S. Chakravarty, M. Ghosalkar, A. Patwardhan, and J. Linnell, D.C. 2018. Monsters or Gods? Narratives of large cat worship in western India. Cat News 67:23-26. External resource

Athreya, V., A. Srivathsa, M. Puri, K. K. Karanth, N. S. Kumar, and K. U. Karanth. 2015. Spotted in the news: using media reports to examine leopard distribution, depredation, and management practices outside protected areas in southern India. Plos One 10:e0142647. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Athreya, V. R., S. S. Thakur, C. Sujoy, and A. V. Belsare. 2007. Leopards in human-dominated areas: a spillover from sustained translocations into nearby forests? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 104:45-50. External resource

Babrgir, S., M. S. Farhadinia, and E. M. Moqanaki. 2017. Socio-economic consequences of cattle predation by the Endangered Persian leopard Panthera pardus saxicolor in a Caucasian conflict hotspot, northern Iran. Oryx 51:124-130. External resource

Balme, G. A., R. Slotow, and L. T. B. Hunter. 2009. Impact of conservation interventions on the dynamics and persistence of a persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus) population. Biological Conservation 142:2681-2690. External resource

Bhatia, S., V. Athreya, R. Grenyer, and D. W. Macdonald. 2013. Understanding the role of representations of human–leopard conflict in Mumbai through media‐content analysis. Conservation Biology 27:588-594. External resource

Bhattacharjee, A., and N. Parthasarathy. 2013. Coexisting with large carnivores: a case study from western Duars, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:20-31. External resource

Chase Grey, J. N., S. Bell, and R. A. Hill. 2017. Leopard diets and landowner perceptions of human wildlife conflict in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Journal for Nature Conservation 37:56-65. External resource

Constant, N. L., S. Bell, and R. A. Hill. 2015. The impacts, characterisation and management of human–leopard conflict in a multi-use land system in South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:2967-2989. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Dar, N. I., R. A. Minhas, Q. Zaman, and M. Linkie. 2009. Predicting the patterns, perceptions and causes of human-carnivore conflict in and around Machiara National Park, Pakistan. Biological Conservation 142:2076-2082. External resource

Dhanwatey, H. S., J. C. Crawford, L. A. S. Abade, P. H. Dhanwatey, C. K. Nielsen, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2013. Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx 47:221-227. External resource

Dickman, A. J., L. Hazzah, C. Carbone, and S. M. Durant. 2014. Carnivores, culture and 'contagious conflict': multiple factors influence perceived problems with carnivores in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape. Biological Conservation 178:19-27. External resource

Fonturbel, F. E., and J. A. Simonetti. 2011. Translocations and human-carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17:217-224. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gebresenbet, F., B. Baraki, G. Yirga, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and H. Bauer. 2018. A culture of tolerance: coexisting with large carnivores in the Kafa Highlands, Ethiopia. Oryx 52:751-760. External resource

Ghosal, S., V. R. Athreya, J. D. C. Linnell, and P. O. Vedeld. 2013. An ontological crisis? A review of large felid conservation in India. Biodiversity and Conservation 22:2665-2681. External resource

Ghosal, S., and D. J. Kjosavik. 2015. Living with leopards: negotiating morality and modernity in western India. Society & Natural Resources 28:1092-1107. External resource

Hathaway, R. S., A.-E. M. Bryant, M. M. Draheim, P. Vinod, S. Limaye, and V. Athreya. 2017. From fear to understanding: changes in media representations of leopard incidences after media awareness workshops in Mumbai, India. Journal of Urban Ecology 3 Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Holland, K. K., L. R. Larson, and R. B. Powell. 2018. Characterizing conflict between humans and big cats Panthera spp: a systematic review of research trends and management opportunities. Plos One 13:e0203877. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Holmern, T., J. Nyahongo, and E. Roskaft. 2007. Livestock loss caused by predators outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 135:518-526. External resource

Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34. External resource

Jhamvar-Shingote, R., and M. A. Schuett. 2013. The predators of Junnar: local peoples' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward leopards and leopard conservation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:32-44. External resource

Khorozyan, I., A. Ghoddousi, M. Soofi, and M. Waltert. 2015. Big cats kill more livestock when wild prey reaches a minimum threshold. Biological Conservation 192:268-275. External resource

Khorozyan, I., M. Soofi, A. K. Hamidi, A. Ghoddousi, and M. Waltert. 2015. Dissatisfaction with veterinary services is associated with leopard (Panthera pardus) predation on domestic animals. Plos One 10:e0129221. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Khorozyan, I., M. Soofi, M. Soufi, A. K. Hamidi, A. Ghoddousi, and M. Waltert. 2017. Effects of shepherds and dogs on livestock depredation by leopards (Panthera pardus) in north-eastern Iran. Peerj 5:e3049. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Kissui, B. M. 2008. Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation 11:422-432. External resource

Kolowski, J. M., and K. E. Holekamp. 2006. Spatial, temporal, and physical characteristics of livestock depredations by large carnivores along a Kenyan reserve border. Biological Conservation 128:529-541. External resource

Koziarski, A., B. Kissui, and C. Kiffner. 2016. Patterns and correlates of perceived conflict between humans and large carnivores in northern Tanzania. Biological Conservation 199:41-50. External resource

Kshettry, A., S. Vaidyanathan, and V. Athreya. 2017. Leopard in a tea-cup: a study of leopard habitat-use and human-leopard interactions in north-eastern India. Plos One 12:e0177013. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Kshettry, A., S. Vaidyanathan, and V. Athreya. 2018. Diet selection of leopards (Panthera pardus) in a human-use landscape in North-Eastern India. Tropical Conservation Science 11:1-9. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Lindsey, P. A., Havemann, C. P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A. E., Retief, T. A., Rhebergen, T. and Van der Waal, C. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands. Plos One 8:14. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Loveridge, A. J., T. Kuiper, R. H. Parry, L. Sibanda, J. H. Hunt, B. Stapelkamp, L. Sebele, and D. W. Macdonald. 2017. Bells, bomas and beefsteak: complex patterns of human-predator conflict at the wildlife-agropastoral interface in Zimbabwe. Peerj 5:e2898. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Miller, J. R. B., Y. V. Jhala, and J. Jena. 2016. Livestock losses and hotspots of attack from tigers and leopards in Kanha Tiger Reserve, Central India. Regional Environmental Change 16:17-29. External resource

Minnie, L., A. F. Boshoff, and G. I. H. Kerley. 2015. Vegetation type influences livestock predation by leopards: implications for conservation in agro-ecosystems. African Journal of Wildlife Research 45:204-214. External resource

Naha, D., S. Sathyakumar, and G. S. Rawat. 2018. Understanding drivers of human-leopard conflicts in the Indian Himalayan region: spatio-temporal patterns of conflicts and perception of local communities towards conserving large carnivores. Plos One 13:e0204528. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

O’Bryan, C. J., A. R. Braczkowski, H. L. Beyer, N. H. Carter, J. E. M. Watson, and E. McDonald-Madden. 2018. The contribution of predators and scavengers to human well-being. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2:229-236. External resource

Odden, M., Athreya, V., Rattan, S. and Linnell, J. D. C. 2014. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India. Plos One 9:e112044. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Ogada, M. O., R. Woodroffe, N. O. Oguge, and L. G. Frank. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology 17:1521-1530. External resource

Romanach, S. S., P. A. Lindsey, and R. Woodroffe. 2007. Determinants of attitudes towards predators in central Kenya and suggestions for increasing tolerance in livestock dominated landscapes. Oryx 41:185-195. External resource

Rostro-Garcia, S., L. Tharchen, L. Abade, C. Astaras, S. A. Cushman, and D. W. Macdonald. 2016. Scale dependence of felid predation risk: identifying predictors of livestock kills by tiger and leopard in Bhutan. Landscape Ecology 31:1277-1298. External resource

Sangay, T., and K. Vernes. 2008. Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores. Biological Conservation 141:1272-1282. External resource

Schiess-Meier, M., S. Ramsauer, T. Gabanapelo, and B. Konig. 2007. Livestock predation - insights from problem animal control registers in Botswana. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1267-1274. External resource

Shehzad, W., M. A. Nawaz, F. Pompanon, E. Coissac, T. Riaz, S. A. Shah, and P. Taberlet. 2015. Forest without prey: livestock sustain a leopard Panthera pardus population in Pakistan. Oryx 49:248-253. External resource

Weilenmann, M., M. Gusset, D. R. Mills, T. Gabanapelo, and M. Schiess-Meier. 2010. Is translocation of stock-raiding leopards into a protected area with resident conspecifics an effective management tool? Wildlife Research 37:702-707. External resource

Books and Book Chapters

Landy, F. 2017. Urban leopards are good cartographers: human-nonhuman and spatial conflicts at Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai. Pages 67-85 in A. Rademacher and K. Sivaramakrishnan, editors. Places of nature in ecologies of urbanism. Hong Kong University Press. External resource


IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group