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Guidance Documents

A guidebook to human-carnivore conflict: strategies and tips for effective communication and collaboration with communities (2016). (Wilson, S.M.) External resource

Livestock and wolves: a guide to nonlethal tools and methods to reduce conflicts (2016). (Defenders of Wildlife) External resource

Livestock guarding dogs - cultural heritage icons with a new relevance for mitigating conservation conflicts (2015). (Linnell, J.D.C. and Lescureux, N.) External resource

Exploring traditional husbandry methods to reduce wolf predation on free-ranging cattle in Portugal and Spain. Final report (2014). (European Commission)

Portuguese Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

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        English Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Practical electric fencing resource guide: controlling predators (2009). (Living with Wildlife Foundation) External resource

Manual prevenção de prejuízos por predadores no gado. (Grupo Lobo) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Key Papers

Arbieu, U., M. Mehring, N. Bunnefeld, P. Kaczensky, I. Reinhardt, H. Ansorge, K. Böhning-Gaese, J. A. Glikman, G. Kluth, C. Nowak, and T. Müller. 2019. Attitudes towards returning wolves (Canis lupus) in Germany: exposure, information sources and trust matter. Biological Conservation 234:202-210. External resource

Bangs, E. E., and J. Shivik. 2001. Managing wolf conflicts with livestock in the Northwest United States. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 3:2-5. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Behdarvand, N., M. Kaboli, M. Ahmadi, E. Nourani, A. S. Mahini, and M. A. Aghbolaghi. 2014. Spatial risk model and mitigation implications for wolf-human conflict in a highly modified agroecosystem in western Iran. Biological Conservation 177:156-164. External resource

Behr, D. M., A. Ozgul, and G. Cozzi. 2017. Combining human acceptance and habitat suitability in a unified socio-ecological suitability model: a case study of the wolf in Switzerland. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:1919-1929. External resource

Boitani, L., P. Ciucci, and E. Raganella-Pelliccioni. 2010. Ex-post compensation payments for wolf predation on livestock in Italy: a tool for conservation? Wildlife Research 37:722-730. External resource

Bradley, E. H., and D. H. Pletscher. 2005. Assessing factors related to wolf depredation of cattle in fenced pastures in Montana and Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1256-1265. External resource

Bradley, E. H., D. H. Pletscher, E. E. Bangs, K. E. Kunkel, D. W. Smith, C. M. Mack, T. J. Meier, J. A. Fontaine, C. C. Niemeyer, and M. D. Jimenez. 2005. Evaluating wolf translocation as a nonlethal method to reduce livestock conflicts in the northwestern United States. Conservation Biology 19:1498-1508. External resource

Browne-Nunez, C., A. Treves, D. MacFarland, Z. Voyles, and C. Turng. 2015. Tolerance of wolves in Wisconsin: a mixed-methods examination of policy effects on attitudes and behavioral inclinations. Biological Conservation 189:59-71. External resource

Bump, J. K., C. M. Murawski, L. M. Kartano, D. E. Beyer, and B. J. Roell. 2013. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict. Plos One 8:7. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Chapron, G., P. Kaczensky, J. D. C. Linnell, M. von Arx, D. Huber, H. Andren, J. V. Lopez-Bao, M. Adamec, F. Alvares, O. Anders, L. Balciauskas, V. Balys, P. Bedo, F. Bego, J. C. Blanco, U. Breitenmoser, H. Broseth, L. Bufka, R. Bunikyte, P. Ciucci, A. Dutsov, T. Engleder, C. Fuxjager, C. Groff, K. Holmala, B. Hoxha, Y. Iliopoulos, O. Ionescu, J. Jeremic, K. Jerina, G. Kluth, F. Knauer, I. Kojola, I. Kos, M. Krofel, J. Kubala, S. Kunovac, J. Kusak, M. Kutal, O. Liberg, A. Majic, P. Mannil, R. Manz, E. Marboutin, F. Marucco, D. Melovski, K. Mersini, Y. Mertzanis, R. W. Myslajek, S. Nowak, J. Odden, J. Ozolins, G. Palomero, M. Paunovic, J. Persson, H. Potocnik, P. Y. Quenette, G. Rauer, I. Reinhardt, R. Rigg, A. Ryser, V. Salvatori, T. Skrbinsek, A. Stojanov, J. E. Swenson, L. Szemethy, A. Trajce, E. Tsingarska-Sedefcheva, M. Vana, R. Veeroja, P. Wabakken, M. Wofl, S. Wolfl, F. Zimmermann, D. Zlatanova, and L. Boitani. 2014. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346:1517-1519. External resource  

Chen, P. J., Y. F. Gao, A. T. L. Lee, L. Cering, K. Shi, and S. G. Clark. 2016. Human-carnivore coexistence in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Nature Reserve, China: patterns and compensation. Biological Conservation 197:18-26. External resource

Dietsch, A. M., T. L. Teel, and M. J. Manfredo. 2016. Social values and biodiversity conservation in a dynamic world. Conservation Biology 30:1212-1221. External resource

Ericsson, G., and T. A. Heberlein. 2003. Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Biological Conservation 111:149-159. External resource

Eriksson, M., C. Sandström, and G. Ericsson. 2015. Direct experience and attitude change towards bears and wolves. Wildlife Biology 21:131-137. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Fernandez-Gil, A., J. Naves, A. Ordiz, M. Quevedo, E. Revilla, and M. Delibes. 2016. Conflict misleads large carnivore management and conservation: brown bears and wolves in Spain. Plos One 11:13. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Fonturbel, F. E., and J. A. Simonetti. 2011. Translocations and human-carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17:217-224. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Frank, J., and A. Eklund. 2017. Poor construction, not time, takes its toll on subsidised fences designed to deter large carnivores. Plos One 12:e0175211. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Frank, J., Johansson, M. and Flykt, A. 2015. Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves. Wildlife Biology 21:122-130. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gehring, T. M., K. C. VerCauteren, M. L. Provost, and A. C. Cellar. 2010. Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms. Wildlife Research 37:715-721. External resource

Glikman, J. A., A. J. Bath, and J. J. Vaske. 2010. Segmenting normative beliefs regarding wolf management in central Italy. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 15:347-358. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Glikman, J. A., J. J. Vaske, A. J. Bath, P. Ciucci, and L. Boitani. 2012. Residents' support for wolf and bear conservation: the moderating influence of knowledge. European Journal of Wildlife Research 58:295-302. External resource

Goljani Amirkhiz, R., J. K. Frey, J. W. Cain, S. W. Breck, and D. L. Bergman. 2018. Predicting spatial factors associated with cattle depredations by the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) with recommendations for depredation risk modeling. Biological Conservation 224:327-335. External resource

Jacobsen, K. S., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2016. Perceptions of environmental justice and the conflict surrounding large carnivore management in Norway - implications for conflict management. Biological Conservation 203:197-206. External resource

Johansson, M., I. A. Ferreira, O. G. Stoen, J. Frank, and A. Flykt. 2016. Targeting human fear of large carnivores - many ideas but few known effects. Biological Conservation 201:261-269. External resource

Jürgens, U. M., and P. M. W. Hackett. 2017. The big bad wolf: the formation of a stereotype. Ecopsychology 9:33-43. External resource

Karlsson, J., and M. Sjostrom. 2007. Human attitudes towards wolves, a matter of distance. Biological Conservation 137:610-616. External resource

Karlsson, J., and M. Sjostrom. 2008. Direct use values and passive use values: implications for conservation of large carnivores. Biodiversity and Conservation 17:883-891. External resource

Karlsson, J., and M. Sjöström. 2011. Subsidized fencing of livestock as a means of increasing tolerance for wolves. Ecology and Society 16. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Lance, N. J., S. W. Breck, C. Sime, P. Callahan, and J. A. Shivik. 2010. Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus). Wildlife Research 37:708-714. External resource

Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2010. Knowledge and perceptions of Macedonian hunters and herders: the influence of species specific ecology of bears, wolves, and lynx. Human Ecology 38:389-399. External resource

Lescureux, N., and J. D. C. Linnell. 2014. Warring brothers: the complex interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) in a conservation context. Biological Conservation 171:232-245. External resource

Li, C. L., Z. G. Jiang, C. W. Li, S. H. Tang, F. Li, Z. H. Luo, X. G. Ping, Z. Liu, J. Chen, and H. X. Fang. 2015. Livestock depredations and attitudes of local pastoralists toward carnivores in the Qinghai Lake Region, China. Wildlife Biology 21:204-212. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Li, X. Y., P. Buzzard, Y. C. Chen, and X. L. Jiang. 2013. Patterns of livestock predation by carnivores: human-wildlife conflict in Northwest Yunnan, China. Environmental Management 52:1334-1340. External resource

Linnell, J. D. C. 2013. From conflict to coexistence: insights from multi-disciplinary research into the relationships between people, large carnivores and institutions. Istituto di Ecologia Applicata, Rome. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Linnell, J. D. C., R. Aanes, J. E. Swenson, J. Odden, and M. E. Smith. 1997. Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a review. Biodiversity and Conservation 6:1245-1257. External resource

Linnell, J. D. C., J. Odden, M. E. Smith, R. Aanes, and J. E. Swenson. 1999. Large carnivores that kill livestock: do "problem individuals" really exist? Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:698-705. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Linnell, J. D. C., J. E. Swenson, and R. Andersen. 2001. Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable. Animal Conservation 4:345-349. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Mabille, G., A. Stien, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Broseth, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2015. Sheep farming and large carnivores: what are the factors influencing claimed losses? Ecosphere 6:17. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Mabille, G., A. Stien, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Brøseth, and J. D. C. Linnell. 2016. Mortality and lamb body mass growth in free‐ranging domestic sheep – environmental impacts including lethal and non‐lethal impacts of predators. Ecography 39:763-773. External resource

Marino, A., C. Braschi, S. Ricci, V. Salvatori, and P. Ciucci. 2016. Ex post and insurance-based compensation fail to increase tolerance for wolves in semi-agricultural landscapes of central Italy. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62:227-240. External resource

Mazur, K. E., and S. T. Asah. 2013. Clarifying standpoints in the gray wolf recovery conflict: procuring management and policy forethought. Biological Conservation 167:79-89. External resource

Milheiras, S., and I. Hodge. 2011. Attitudes towards compensation for wolf damage to livestock in Viana do Castelo, North of Portugal. Innovation-the European Journal of Social Science Research 24:333-351. External resource

Mishra, C. 1997. Livestock depredation by large carnivores in the Indian trans-Himalaya: conflict perceptions and conservation prospects. Environmental Conservation 24:338-343. External resource

Morehouse, A. T., and M. S. Boyce. 2011. From venison to beef: seasonal changes in wolf diet composition in a livestock grazing landscape. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9:440-445. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Muhly, T. B., and M. Musiani. 2009. Livestock depredation by wolves and the ranching economy in the Northwestern US. Ecological Economics 68:2439-2450. External resource

Musiani, M., C. Mamo, L. Boitani, C. Callaghan, C. C. Gates, L. Mattei, E. VisalberghiI, S. Breck, and G. VolpiI. 2003. Wolf depredation trends and the use of barriers to protect livestock in western North America. Conservation Biology 17:1-10. External resource

Naughton-Treves, L., R. Grossberg, and A. Treves. 2003. Paying for tolerance: rural citizens' attitudes toward wolf depredation and compensation. Conservation Biology 17:1500-1511. External resource

Nie, M. A. 2001. The sociopolitical dimensions of wolf management and restoration in the United States. Human Ecology Review 8:1-12. External resource

Nie, M. A. 2002. Wolf recovery and management as value-based political conflict. Ethics, Place & Environment 5:65-71. External resource  

Olson, E. R., A. Treves, A. P. Wydeven, and S. J. Ventura. 2015. Landscape predictors of wolf attacks on bear-hunting dogs in Wisconsin, USA. Wildlife Research 41:584-597. External resource

Pate, J., M. J. Manfredo, A. D. Bright, and G. Tischbein. 1996. Coloradans' attitudes toward reintroducing the gray wolf into Colorado. Wildlife Society Bulletin 24:421-428. External resource

Penteriani, V., M. D. Delgado, F. Pinchera, J. Naves, A. Fernandez-Gil, I. Kojola, S. Harkonen, H. Norberg, J. Frank, J. M. Fedriani, V. Sahlen, O. G. Stoen, J. E. Swenson, P. Wabakken, M. Pellegrini, S. Herrero, and J. V. Lopez-Bao. 2016. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries. Scientific Reports 6:8. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Pimenta, V., I. Barroso, L. Boitani, and P. Beja. 2018. Risks a la carte: modelling the occurrence and intensity of wolf predation on multiple livestock species. Biological Conservation 228:331-342. External resource

Rigg, R., S. Findo, M. Wechselberger, M. L. Gorman, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and D. W. Macdonald. 2011. Mitigating carnivore-livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45:272-280. External resource

Rondinini, C., and L. Boitani. 2007. Systematic conservation planning and the cost of tackling conservation conflicts with large carnivores in Italy. Conservation Biology 21:1455-1462. External resource

Rosen, T., S. Hussain, G. Mohammad, R. Jackson, J. E. Janecka, and S. Michel. 2012. Reconciling sustainable development of mountain communities with large carnivore conservation lessons from Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development 32:286-293. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Roskaft, E., T. Bjerke, B. Kaltenborn, J. D. C. Linnell, and R. Andersen. 2003. Patterns of self-reported fear towards large carnivores among the Norwegian public. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:184-198. External resource

Santiago-Avila, F. J., A. M. Cornman, and A. Treves. 2018. Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors. Plos One 13:e0189729. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Skogen, K., and O. Krange. 2003. A wolf at the gate: the anti‐carnivore alliance and the symbolic construction of community. Sociologia Ruralis 43:309-325. External resource  

Skogen, K., I. Mauz, and O. Krange. 2006. Wolves and eco-power. A French-Norwegian analysis of the narratives on the return of large carnivores. Revue de géographie alpine 94:78-87. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Smith, J. B., C. K. Nielsen, and E. C. Hellgren. 2016. Suitable habitat for recolonizing large carnivores in the midwestern USA. Oryx 50:555-564. External resource

Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation: I. Guardian animals. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:279-290. External resource

Smith, M. E., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, and J. E. Swenson. 2000. Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation II. Aversive conditioning, deterrents and repellents. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section a-Animal Science 50:304-315. External resource

Sponarski, C. C., C. Semeniuk, J. A. Glikman, A. J. Bath, and M. Musiani. 2013. Heterogeneity among rural resident attitudes toward wolves. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18:239-248. External resource

Stone, S. A., S. W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P. M. Haswell, F. Najera, B. S. Bean, and D. J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98:33-44. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Suryawanshi, K. R., S. Bhatia, Y. V. Bhatnagar, S. Redpath, and C. Mishra. 2014. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves. Conservation Biology 28:1657-1666. External resource

Suryawanshi, K. R., Y. V. Bhatnagar, S. Redpath, and C. Mishra. 2013. People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves. Journal of Applied Ecology 50:550-560. External resource

Treves, A. 2009. Hunting for large carnivore conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:1350-1356. External resource

Treves, A., and K. U. Karanth. 2003. Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17:1491-1499. External resource

Treves, A., L. Naughton-Treves, E. K. Harper, D. J. Mladenoff, R. A. Rose, T. A. Sickley, and A. P. Wydeven. 2004. Predicting human-carnivore conflict: a spatial model derived from 25 years of data on wolf predation on livestock. Conservation Biology 18:114-125. External resource

Wielgus, R. B., and K. A. Peebles. 2014. Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations. Plos One 9:e113505. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Young, J. C., S. M. Redpath, P. Ciucci, A. Marino, S. Ricci, and V. Salvatori. 2018. Introducing a decision modelling approach to addressing wolf conflicts in Italy. Carnivore Damage Prevention News 17:28-33. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download  

Books and Book Chapters

Dickman, A., S. Marchini, and M. Manfredo. 2013. The human dimension in addressing conflict with large carnivores. Pages 110-126 Key topics in conservation biology 2. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford. External resource

Nie, M. A. 2003. Beyond wolves: the politics of wolf recovery and management. University of Minnesota Press, London. External resource

Sillero-Zubiri, C., R. Sukumar, and A. Treves. 2007. Living with wildlife: the roots of conflict and the solutions. Key topics in conservation biology:266-272. External resource

Skogen, K., O. Krange, and H. Figari. 2017. Wolf conflicts: a sociological study. Berghahn Books, Oxford. External resource

Zimmermann, A., N. Baker, C. Inskip, J. D. C. Linnell, S. Marchini, J. Odden, G. Rasmussen, and A. Treves. 2009. Contemporary views of human–carnivore conflicts on wild rangelands. Pages 129-151 in J. T. du Toit, R. Kock, and J. C. Deutsch, editors. Wild rangelands. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. External resource


IUCN SSC Canid Specialist Group

Carnivore damage prevention news    Issue 10-Present         Earlier issues


Credit: People and Carnivores