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Guidance Documents

Human-lion conflict toolkit. (Niassa Carnivore Project & partners)  Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Human-wildlife conflict in Africa: causes, consequences and management strategies. (FAO Forestry Paper) Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Key Papers

Bauer, H., H. de Iongh, and E. Sogbohossou. 2010. Assessment and mitigation of human-lion conflict in West and Central Africa. Mammalia 74:363-367. External resource

Bauer, H., L. Muller, D. Van Der Goes, and C. Sillero-Zubiri. 2017. Financial compensation for damage to livestock by lions Panthera leo on community rangelands in Kenya. Oryx 51:106-114. External resource

Blackburn, S., J. G. C. Hopcraft, J. O. Ogutu, J. Matthiopoulos, and L. Frank. 2016. Human-wildlife conflict, benefit sharing and the survival of lions in pastoralist community-based conservancies. Journal of Applied Ecology 53:1195-1205. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Dickman, A. J., L. Hazzah, C. Carbone, and S. M. Durant. 2014. Carnivores, culture and 'contagious conflict': multiple factors influence perceived problems with carnivores in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape. Biological Conservation 178:19-27. External resource

Fonturbel, F. E., and J. A. Simonetti. 2011. Translocations and human-carnivore conflicts: problem solving or problem creating? Wildlife Biology 17:217-224. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Gebresenbet, F., H. Bauer, J. M. Vadjunec, and M. Papeş. 2018. Beyond the numbers: human attitudes and conflict with lions (Panthera leo) in and around Gambella National Park, Ethiopia. Plos One 13:e0204320. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Hazzah, L., A. Bath, S. Dolrenry, A. Dickman, and L. Frank. 2017. From attitudes to actions: predictors of lion killing by Maasai warriors. Plos One 12:e0170796. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Hazzah, L., S. Dolrenry, L. Naughton, C. T. T. Edwards, O. Mwebi, F. Kearney, and L. Frank. 2014. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya. Conservation Biology 28:851-860. External resource

Hazzah, L., M. B. Mulder, and L. Frank. 2009. Lions and warriors: social factors underlying declining African lion populations and the effect of incentive-based management in Kenya. Biological Conservation 142:2428-2437. External resource

Hemson, G., S. Maclennan, G. Mills, P. Johnson, and D. Macdonald. 2009. Community, lions, livestock and money: a spatial and social analysis of attitudes to wildlife and the conservation value of tourism in a human-carnivore conflict in Botswana. Biological Conservation 142:2718-2725. External resource

Holland, K. K., L. R. Larson, and R. B. Powell. 2018. Characterizing conflict between humans and big cats Panthera spp: a systematic review of research trends and management opportunities. Plos One 13:e0203877. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43:18-34. External resource

Kuiper, T. R., A. J. Loveridge, D. M. Parker, P. J. Johnson, J. E. Hunt, B. Stapelkamp, L. Sibanda, and D. W. Macdonald. 2015. Seasonal herding practices influence predation on domestic stock by African lions along a protected area boundary. Biological Conservation 191:546-554. External resource

Kushnir, H., and C. Packer. 2019. Perceptions of risk from man-eating lions in Southeastern Tanzania. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7. External resource

Lichtenfeld, L. L., C. Trout, and E. L. Kisimir. 2015. Evidence-based conservation: predator-proof bomas protect livestock and lions. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:483-491. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Lindsey, P. A., Havemann, C. P., Lines, R., Palazy, L., Price, A. E., Retief, T. A., Rhebergen, T. and Van der Waal, C. 2013. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands. Plos One 8:14. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Maclennan, S. D., R. J. Groom, D. W. Macdonald, and L. G. Frank. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation 142:2419-2427. External resource

Meena, V., P. J. Johnson, A. Zimmermann, R. A. Montgomery, and D. W. Macdonald. 2020. Evaluation of human attitudes and factors conducive to promoting human–lion coexistence in the Greater Gir landscape, India. Oryx:1-10. External resource

Meena, V., Macdonald, D. W. and Montgomery, R. A. 2014. Managing success: Asiatic lion conservation, interface problems and peoples' perceptions in the Gir Protected Area. Biological Conservation 174:120-126. External resource

Montgomery, R. A., C. F. Hoffmann, E. D. Tans, and B. Kissui. 2018. Discordant scales and the potential pitfalls for human-carnivore conflict mitigation. Biological Conservation 224:170-177. External resource

Ontiri, E. M., M. Odino, A. Kasanga, P. Kahumbu, L. W. Robinson, T. Currie, and D. J. Hodgson. 2019. Maasai pastoralists kill lions in retaliation for depredation of livestock by lions. People and Nature Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Patterson, B. D., E. J. Neiburger, and S. M. Kasiki. 2003. Tooth breakage and dental disease as causes of carnivore-human conflicts. Journal of Mammalogy 84:190-196. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Pooley, S., M. Barua, W. Beinart, A. Dickman, G. Holmes, J. Lorimer, A. J. Loveridge, D. W. Macdonald, G. Marvin, S. Redpath, C. Sillero-Zubiri, A. Zimmermann, and E. J. Milner-Gulland. 2017. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human–predator relations. Conservation Biology 31:513-523. Adobe Acrobat PDF Download

Saberwal, V. K., J. P. Gibbs, R. Chellam, and A. J. T. Johnsingh. 1994. Lion human conflict in the Gir Forest, India. Conservation Biology 8:501-507. External resource

Schuette, P., S. Creel, and D. Christianson. 2013. Coexistence of African lions, livestock, and people in a landscape with variable human land use and seasonal movements. Biological Conservation 157:148-154. External resource

Weise, F. J., H. Hauptmeier, K. J. Stratford, M. W. Hayward, K. Aal, M. Heuer, M. Tomeletso, V. Wulf, M. J. Somers, and A. B. Stein. 2019. Lions at the gates: trans-disciplinary design of an early warning system to improve human-lion coexistence. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6. External resource

Winterbach, H. E. K., C. W. Winterbach, M. J. Somers, and M. W. Hayward. 2013. Key factors and related principles in the conservation of large African carnivores. Mammal Review 43:89-110. External resource


IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group

African Lion Working Group